The Design of a European Unemployment (Re)Insurance Scheme: Lessons from US Experience


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the amsterdam centre for european studies ssrn research paper 2019/06 design of a unemployment (re)insurance scheme: lessons from us experience christiaan luigjes georg fischer frank vandenbroucke this work is licensed under creative commons attribution 4 0 international license © luigjes* fischer** vandenbroucke*** 2019 *university email: c f luigjes@uva nl **vienna institute economic fischer@wiiw ac at *** universiteit i g vandenbroucke@uva www aces uva abstract american system insurance (ui) often cited as model potential re-insurance schemes while oversimplified comparisons are to be avoided there europe can learn federal- state relations regarding ui we distinguish three aspects system: first in 1930s federal government was able solve collective action problem that impeded development state-level programs; second during 1950s congress enacted backstop depleted trust funds used finance regular benefits; third 1970s added an extra layer based on intergovernmental co-financing benefits which intensifies crises and thus reinforces protection stabilization where when it most needed now exercise interest about buttressing national systems with supranational shows federal-state cooperation has overcome problems enhanced proved great importance recession effectively expand unemployed workers programs period high rising thereby contribute relevant way efforts obama administration however also some structural weaknesses view what might developed eu identify two risks level depending set-up federal-level financing lead retrenchment terms macroeconomic divergence between vulnerable these although may not its main current challenge simultaneously – other besetting insurmountable draw both positive cautionary lesson minimum requirements generosity coverage levels fundamental prerequisites any keywords: fiscal federalism introduction1 2012 report future monetary union (emu) presented by presidents council commission eurogroup central bank suggested create shock absorption mechanism: “an insurance-type euro area countries” one option mentioned capacity would act “complement or partial substitute systems” (van rompuy et al p 11) since then idea ‘european benefit scheme’ (eubs) particular emu-level ‘unemployment re- insurance’ garnering significant attention 2 her agenda commission’s president ursula von der leyen promises propose “european reinsurance scheme” (von 10) french german ministers le maire scholz agreed scheme july 2018 ecb draghi considered hearing parliament such important (draghi 2018; 2018) spd eu-election program explicitly calls fund reinsure (spd 2019) senior politicians3 including vice-chancellor refer besides social-democrats election manifesto greens cites need risk sharing counter policy makers who favor concept necessarily face hostile audience opinion public support cross-border hits member states but crucially depends features adequate incentives take up employment active 1 thank suzanne simonetta roel beetsma critical comments suggestions version working replaces 2019-version been released online too early accident see among others (2018) (2017a 2017b) carnot (2017) dolls beblavy lenaerts brandolini (2016) strauss dullien (2014) gros andor ragot (2019) 3 former party nahles explained: “we along lines financial power 27 must stand stabilize shocks prevent mass once situation improves will flow back ” https://europeangreens eu/priorities-2019-what-european-greens-fight#manifesto (vandenbroucke discuss concern shortcomings 5 1. caveats reference debates eurozone-level mechanism happenstance supports purchasing citizens downturn therefore automatic stabilizer par excellence existing unions either opt downright centralization (historically canada germany) they demand convergence organization provide really (like combines decentralization) rational behavior reasons pooling enhances resilience against asymmetric notion ‘asymmetric shocks’ should understood broadly here: symmetric origin play out very differently individual countries because conditions differ advantage argument stabilizers more particularly degree cross- border allows interregional smoothing 6 reason why applies completely across no value per se externality; country properly insures itself helps neighbors externality matter common all members organize effective fact have ingredients classical problem: increases labor costs without coordination competitive pressure militates sufficiently generous explained next section indeed response forum volume 52 (may/june 2017) intereconomics journal excellent account issues wandner relatively broad consensus order economically politically legitimate organizes intertemporal issue debt eurozone business cycles partly synchronized symmetric; combined cf de grauwe ji (2017); effectiveness emu whole cluster principles: sufficient rates market segmentation proliferation leave part force poorly insured unemployment; activation individuals implementation principles each ‘stability-supporting’ domestic our strongest arguments conversely stability-supporting become fortiori imperative organized: agree other’s if governments cannot guarantee their functions adequately words tabled here just enhance stability moreover quality policies intrinsically mutually related: condition self-evident further ado develop formal basis appendix various degrees –illustrated caveat concerns level: commitment authority lend induce retrench own generally diminish effort (or federal) aggregate states’ diminishes extent ‘retrenchment risk’ exact shape depend preferences attitudes leaders concerning shown linked first: case dynamic leads social rather than e ‘divergence reduction via commits (our caveat) unavoidable: supranational) sometimes ‘takes over’ less role even explicit purpose intervention and/or (rather convergence) backdrop ‘reduced stabilization’ takes form real examined consider 2. history outline united echoes genesis partnership wherein distinct responsibilities regulation circumstances autonomy operating governments’ primarily through extended follow analysis keep mind different teach europeans legislation provided show how final steps were protecting incomes times making substantial contribution economy regard move (creating benefits) subject related gradually emerged context notably lack ‘minimum requirements’ state’s created 1935 wake depression pursuing interlinked objectives objective offer wage replacement periods involuntary help maintain dispersal trained breakdown standards (price 1985 24) made sense feared interstate tax competition: concerned individually businesses relocate could had tread lightly closely guarded constitutional balance strong following comply those finances respective payroll complies rate reduced 90 percent mostly (to return detail 3) almost complete setting eligibility criteria normal required plays due introduced 1954 1970 ‘backstop’ example receive advance pay obligations advances repaid runs deficit consecutive years charge employers penalty-tax importantly law provides extension maximum duration given rises above certain threshold (we ‘triggers’ below) financed equally ad hoc emergency extensions possible contingent congressional approval fully federally (partially) follows logic complementary adds 7 anticyclical impact especially (dullien 2014 63) crisis laid bare (fischer 3. functioning basic stood test time well crucial factor longevity alter parameters same competition relevance ensures payment extending oversight increasingly emphasized necessity reemployment encouraged grants exchange best practices combination incremental adaptations continued interests recent exhibited building decades re-emerged resulted inadequate funding multiple solutions successful overcoming loosing predominantly taxes lobbied employer organizations lower cope revenues number tightened simply acquiesced near-insolvent 8 long-term perspective appear short-term electoral pressures myopic designed ways: illustrate alternative options impacts choices illustrated figures a3 a4 a5 corresponds qua figure a5; ‘incentive effect’ policy-makers better incentive effect models (although noted only imply permanently activated) does totally preclude possibility indicated earlier substitution intended solvency targets none binding elected legislators theory preempt levies requirement levy least permits reduce employers’ below ‘standard rate’ employer’s so practice actual applied exercising flexibility facto increasing measure today many low still retain credit 9 another essential taxable base (‘tax base’) equal set deemed race bottom adjusted indexed 1983 raised bases varying yet insufficient degrees) run deficits pressuring address insolvency calculated share ineffective lost over last triggers relies proven unreliable original (iur) measures jobs covered iur affected determine themselves became insensitive trends measured total (tur) (o’leary & pp 136-137) consequently downturns triggered barnow 2016 13-14) tighten manifold: (as above) do want respect paid (2019 145) emphasizes obligation maintaining shrinking determined grateful pointing half ideological aversion general apply restrictive recipiency stronger push local assume nevertheless profit improved neighboring attitudinal differences towards result developments increased after followed template resulting fairly homogeneous initially 44) utilized started diverge currently vary somewhat widely 10 finally before 1994 advisory compensation (acuc 1996) reluctant hit confronted 36 insolvent funds11 receiving place led despite did trigger took extraordinary (vroman woodbury 2014) proposed 100 50 adopt tur (actual unemployment) legislated additional 99 weeks accept ‘non-reduction rule’ (states rates) strongly jobless additionally available ‘modernization’ use expanding introducing short-term-work updating old it-systems reached historic 2011 2013) clearly paquier o’leary 11 partially severity lowest point (simonetta overcompensated newly tied expired january returned abandoned modernization retrenched eight exploited loophole non-reduction rule standard robust maintained kept systemic improvements contrast revoked organized utilize already solvent diversity present temporarily muted again post-crisis evolution 12 graph increase typically allowed usa manner specific 13 vroman discusses changes consequence factors results deep oecd temporary unique broader comparing immervoll richardson (2013) source: unsurprising tensions briefly revisited mixture myopia political oriented welfare (weaknesses legacy solution 1930s) stemming recently expense meant true presentation general: intrinsic minimize (section a5) 14 generate outcomes being schelkle (2017 chapters argues ambiguous effects shift cost rescues security congenial; illustrates whereby overall (aggregate) decreases free adjust fit recognizing outgoing 600 nationwide floor states15 host (dol 2016) 16 experts reforms urgently (for thorough proposals adopted 4. experience: inspiration examples tempting close analogy caution comparison origins distinct: encourage existed before; inception homogenous well-established predating method regulate capacity: enticed adhere quid pro quo 1) dollars 2) neither resources nor mandate process institutions decision-making approved agile difficult resistance single sovereign neigh impossible reach resolution system? relationship creation 15 limit discussion encouragement services mutual learning influx buoyed recessions strengthened income massively numbers bolstered (briefly discussed footnotes 14) fourth conditionality imposing interventions showed conditionality: optional stopped glass half-full half-empty limited emphasize conditional 17 massive require major change imagine equivalent taken architecture creates nature mean driver activated (perverse) weaker wage-cost competitiveness ideologically motivated dislike supporting likely constituted contributions obviously states; leeway perverse neutralized? historically rely five presidents: “completing europe`s union” discussions group budgetary instrument ensure potential; instead relied steadily diminished (which determines strength incentives) remained unchanged structure comprehensive architectural upward trend 1958 negatively affects compensated conclusion needs carefully ‘top-up’ (cf footnote 7) ‘accommodate’ suboptimal avoid pitfalls seems quite diverse starting reminder leadership offered advised define approach historical make lasting erosion inaction highly hence moments unsuitable new stricter difficulty pursue well- outset definition negotiation pan-european undoubtedly unduly pessimistic hand european-level government: observation underscores build initiative realm solid acquired extensive expertise hard soft benchmarking domain promotion pillar rights solemnly proclaimed november 2017 constitutes useful framework succession integrity long underlying erosion; otherwise long-run extremely implement happen manipulation instance linking gdp good direction short holds valuable blueprint policies: graphical simplified federation responsible taxation sheds light highlights (re-)insurance representation story told differs respects existence given; initial schemes; offers people complementing providing alternatively exactly impact) permanent: stylized (implicitly) depicted permanent whilst canadian belgian swiss system) actually works yields conceptual blocks understand multi-tiered types risk: associated whether basically characterized (i) (their duration) (ii) job search beneficiaries suitability (below summarize ‘job conditions’) (iii) finding improving skills capacities impediments a1 decision focus core parameter: lever (focusing highlight described body paper; intention picture graphs constructed simplification: average proportional to) authorities treated constants represented presupposes specified exogenous 18 horizontal axis rate: sum necessary activities; latter constant go ‘high’ ‘low’ vertical months person (going ‘short’ ‘long’) line sm ‘feasible set’ s (a maximal security); m collected means abstraction changing activity affect zero (hence it: extreme market-liberal policy) curve containing indifference policy-makers: indifferent combinations (they answer question: ‘how much you taxes?’) 19 curves (relative burden impose) flat; unemployed) steep choose feasible satisfaction policy- (at highest attained policies) optimal them somewhere simplicity always homothetic (i expansion paths linear); hold presenting smooth considerable simplification reality key dynamics polities funded addition consists fixed (paid federation) shifts vertically upwards dashed s’m’ a2 suppose distance s’ s’m’) independently principle display enjoy s’-s adapt (augmented) preferences: p’ (the difference s); federation’s decreasing replace reaction dotted ‘democratic’: values highly; dashed-and- ‘republican’: ‘democratic’ ‘republican’ points democratic higher republican state); react compare d d’ r r’ mainly let protection; improvement modest decreased considerably stringent patterns convergence; assumption everywhere (some observations reactions ‘modernization grants’ correspond theoretical analysis: ‘republican ‘democratic positions stops ) think bit harder ‘complementary extra-number transfer lump money states: allow strings attached (no ui) improve (but s’-s) (in spent money) 20 mix a3) yield ‘lump transfer’ level; replaced expanded sponsored ‘re-insurance’ severe note left decide ‘do’ (between states) initiative: type insurance: pure guarantees every whatever foresees guaranteed 25 a; b 35 argued similar state- politicians suffer availability softens budget constraints reducing relying deal benefits: gap normally shaped (from policy-makers’ view) p” corner solution: zero; collect a4) curves: remains box 22-23); conclude problematic variant intelligent month follows: dollar spends pays set: s’m choice (on s’m) reimburse ’50 reimbursement’ ‘conditional’ invested support: operates administrative let’s same; captures reimbursement ‘matching’) kind emphasis (given curves) compared depict homothetic) means: – l l’ (increased citizens); decrease ol (indicated arrow); t t’ (ol l; reduced) 21 ‘own effort’ organizational obtain little state’ ‘improved protection’ ‘less taxation’ remain excluded here) a1-a5 readily one? belgium (and organized) regions (largely) scenario full generates incentive; elsewhere labeled ‘institutional moral hazard’ sensitive sensitivity institutional hazard conceived materialize ways call supported ‘program a’; borne becomes state-financed unemployment-related (say b’) caseloads gives vigorous reemploying caseload influenced (e support) drawing crossing hands learned summarized obtains achieve direct technically achieved funds) directly upon limits possibilities (some) rapidly severely references acuc (1996) findings recommendations: 1994-1996 washington dc: jara h x sutherland designing 49(4) 184-203 k feasibility (https://www ceps eu/publications/feasibility-and-added- value-european-unemployment-benefits-scheme) carta d’amuri unemployment-based absorber 54(5) 1123–1141 n kizior mourre euro-area: simulation ceb 17/025 y boom busts governance barnard baere (ed (pp 160-191) cambridge: cambridge university press dol year 2017: justification training service department fuest neumann peichl area? alternatives using microdata 25(1) 273-309 question mep weizsäcker: ep committee http://www europarl europa eu/cmsdata/151460/monetary%20dialogue%2009 07 2018_ en pdf zone gütersloh: bertelsmann stiftung (2017a) reflection deepening 31 (com(2017) 291) (2017b) instruments stable within communication december 822 final) partnership: reflections iza 129 1-42 roadmap https://www economie gouv fr/files/files/pdf/2018/finances-euro_area_roadmap- redistribution ‘game changer’ working-age families? migration papers 150 america: europe? insights 23(june) 1-22 24 january) ist die antwort speech spd- fraktionsvorsitzenden andrea unemployment-benefit coverage: drivers outlook paris: j insurance? 20(1) 1-4 upjohn 16-264 price (1985) 1935-85 bulletin 48(10) 22-32 reform: evidence-based recommendations fixing broken 131-210) kalamazoo michigan: w civiliser capitalisme crise du libéralisme européen retour politique fayard solidarity understanding experiment oxford: oxford reform request 23-64) kommt zusammen und macht stark! wahlprogramm für europawahl am 26 mai debate appam conference inequalities: addressing growing policymakers worldwide london 13-14 june van barroso juncker (2012) genuine (december 2012) brussels hazard: vaccination metaphor 52(3) 154-159 burgoon kuhn nicoli sacchi duin hegewald hits: influences citizen (eurs) aissr wood lievens assistance (137) brussels: u my europe: guidelines 2019-2024 https://ec eu/commission/interim_en 103-130) 67(1) 253-268

The new European Commission must convince citizens that the Pillar is alive and kicking


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euvisions the new european commission must convince citizens pillar is alive and kicking by frank vandenbroucke i’m very grateful to all people – colleagues from academia policy-makers social political actors who contributed forum debate launched this brief conclusion should not be read as a real ‘conclusion’: it possible do justice contributions since many themes broached in would merit more thought nor will i try sketch agenda for rather than ‘concluding’ want explain mindset which together with maurizio ferrera my introduction wrote that solemn proclamation of marks point no return: some years now either convincing recognizable success or high-profile failure may become policy sustains momentum beyond lifetime juncker however if eu fails deliver on promise enshrined initiative backfire frustration generates undermine any attempt equip comprehensive dimension long time come given cost an eventual those us care about politics work interpretation maximizes its positive potential means among other things fit into consistent view role play policy: our perspective ‘european union’ also insisted we identify priority areas parliament council have take initiatives components union let me first recall identified five different ‘components’ brought constitute union’: national spaces transnational mobility space (supranational policies explicit purpose they regulative redistributive nature) fundamental principles call identifying priorities was one components: ‘eu policy’ proper sense supranational multidimensional understanding what ‘social europe’ important use andrew watt’s words claiming europe myth’ because ‘the paucity explicitly based misunderstanding: confuses multi-level entity eu-level narrow act issues when there value-added doing so sure interpret ‘added value’ merely economic material terms here: added value eu- level can increase legitimacy stressed his (i return below) resist temptation download whole onto institution: concern x relevant develop tackle differentiates approach instance trudie knijn’s contribution critical comment knijn writes implementing ‘must go far insurance union’; she mentions need spending public services concur her budgets increased member state resonates pillar’s but consider task states make invest sufficient resources at requires framework allows maintain fair adequate taxation systems welfare funded adequately (notably preventing race bottom corporate taxation); temporary support are hit severe shocks their funding whilst coping declining revenues unemployment benefits basically ‘insurance do; ‘insure’ capacity over responsibility themselves watt adds broader observation caveat eu: cannot separate economic’ social’ indeed inextricably intertwined potentially mutually reinforcing contributors graham room sacha garben others underscore insight each own way tackling interregional inequalities realizing upward convergence sustaining investment (…) large extent matter choices actor agenda-setter vladimir bogoeski’s same spirit bogoeski challenges belief ‘rights-based’ fundamentally: language rights lose battle against inequality notably between core periphery unequal development eu’s addressed long-term true across both ‘redistributive’ ‘pre-distributive policies’ (whereby he links chiara saraceno’s input debate); legitimate leads squarely domain regional policies? bea cantillon’s really takes up challenge priority’ roadmap delivering argues minimum income protection reinforce substance levers rehearse arguments like briefly contrast proposal set out developed enriched useful manos matsaganis repeat: suggested hard ‘holding environment’ whereby word ‘insurance’ understood broad organize mutual risk-sharing case collective action allow (a emphasized rightly waltraud shelkle various series) solidary countries within 20 mind intrinsically related notion access initially proposed ‘hard legislation’ guarantee citizens; second stage opted softer recommendation has been accepted next few needed regard principle suggest selecting ‘access all’ key e put top list first think stabilization merits through organization re-insurance scheme) then see does erode reason utmost including lack incapacity developments labour markets such proliferation independent ‘zzp’ statute netherlands platform economy undermining basic feature spill-overs intellectual confronted forms integrated security schemes unfair competitive pressure (perverse) process exchange learning states’ order better understand nature variety future scenarios solutions uniquely well equipped serve innovative unchartered domains prime example third bolstered citizenship linked every citizen always irrespective sector type activity employment relationship… persons whom depends engaged right’ individual yet confined exchanges high-level experts remaining ivory-tower exercise characterizing peer-review processes too often inform definition enjoyed here benefit matsaganis’ enriches argument linking ‘future work’: ‘[t]he never stronger experimentation best practices’ risk simplifying distinction taken say former focuses specific outcomes achieved latter ‘nuts bolts’ future-proof obviously overlap two wants reconsider importance universal instruments fight poverty give another emphasis nuts bolts states: developing obliges transparent system wages coverage much narrative these respective pronounce final judgment here; approaches cantillon advances (and tables additional cautionary reducing ) emphasize exactly kind determination implementation everything simultaneously: energy capital inevitably limited hence synergy insistence selection detract contribution: delivery presupposes combined implement principles: legislation; coordination benchmarking; substantial semester fiscal macroeconomic surveillance francesco costamagna draw attention highlight mainstream inspiration semester’s recommendations insurmountable contradiction warning artificial opposition social’: austerity presumably were sound ‘stabilisation’ (to costamagna’s terminology) aftermath financial crisis over-emphasis consolidation simply ill-guided policy; definitely well-organized stabilisation making legal greater weight considerations helpful respect observatory (ose) recently published report workers’ group committee commission’s multiannual financial scrutinized (sabato et al 2019) table battery operational budgetary proposals translate refer reader authors reform programme instrument vehicle promote fact mff undergo check’ less convinced suggestion ose introduce imbalances procedure’ main focus corti stefano sabato bart vanhercke adding soft procedure already complicated procedures relatively little per se believe crux provide tangible reforms guided objectives coherent solidarity further (which politically!) allocating context setting ‘social’ militate necessary integration wrong functionalist fallacy martin heidenreich insists ‘functional arguments’ poor basis warns ‘functionalist fallacy’ proposes highly original alternative account idea ‘exit’ options seem foreclosed cautions approach: risks completion emu might blind east-west divide remarks touch upon complex analytical normative problems struggle indicated initial agree stretch functional elsewhere argued thinking bridge shared aspirations ferrera’s search avoid functionalism arguing hand constraints face carry cutting short somewhere said summary thoughts inspired entail deliberately ‘improved citizens’ accessible understandable citizens: applying wages… interesting suggestion: joint ‘just transition’ climate underscores yes promising waiting admittedly pragmatic worry last months continuity: continuity general require effective especially institutions credibility nothing worse impression ‘cheap talk’ quickly forgotten side-remark laszlo andor complains higher profile follow-up 2013 package; mere package barroso probably reduced motivation keep prominently radar pity happen again under formed ursula von der leyen’s presented get respect: only announces full ‘action plan’ being clear-headed ways thus mobilization therefore end note: feed high- neatly organized plan skeptical references: s f b spasova (2019) integrating deepening europe’s monetary brussels:

Eindeloopbaan: aandachtspunten voor het federale en Vlaamse beleid


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Eindeloopbaan: aandachtspunten voor het federale en Vlaamse beleid In deze bijdrage ligt de klemtoon op Aange- zien dit themanummer van Over Werk zich richt tot overheid kan verbazen Voor is ech- ter cruciaal te weten hoe eindeloopbaanbeleid ontwikkelt Vanzelfsprekend heeft geen be- voegdheden inzake pensioenen; met uitzondering aspect ‘activering’ (en specifieke kwesties zoals kwaliteit out- placement) zij ook bevoegdheden over uit- tredestelsels die toelaten dat mensen reeds hun pensione- ring arbeidsmarkt verlaten Toch pleit ik een bijzondere aandacht ontwikkelingen terrein om verschillende redenen De eerste reden beleidsimpul- sen voorbije vijftien jaar rol speelden in stelselma- tige stijging werkzaamheid ouderen Vlaanderen stand gekomen zijn niveau tweede pensioenbeleid impasse terechtgeko- men daardoor kruispunt staat: vraag welke weg ingeslagen wordt uit geraken belangrijk derde moet anticiperen koers zal volgen kort toelichten basis gunstige dus optimistische) hypothese richting zou kunnen inslaan & Van Steenkiste 2018a) Ver- schillende factoren – niet alleen verklaren waarom tredeleeftijd toeneemt Vlaande- ren België meeste Europese landen Maar speelde toch rol: relatief sterkere toe- name uittredeleeftijd bij vrouwen periode (2001-2011) mee verklaard worden doordat officiële pensi- oenleeftijd 2009 geleidelijk werd opgetrokken pensioenleeftijd mannen (65 jaar) uittredeleef- tijd gesproken sterker mannen; hangt sa- verstrenging leeftijds- loopbaanvoorwaar- den recht vervroegd pensioen regering Di Rupo doorvoerde 1 Daarnaast beslissing Vlaam- se Regering voorwaarden opname terbe- schikkingstelling voorafgaand aan (TBSVP) koppe- len datum waarop iemand kon gaan Wellicht droeg verstren- ging toetredingsvoorwaar- stelsel werkloos- Impact Sinds 2000 stijgt leeftijd Vlaan- deren treden gestadig (Scholiers heid bedrijfstoeslag (SWT) verhoging Dit toetredingsvoorwaarden pen- sioen verdergezet door Michel alhoewel meest besproken maatregel laatste verhogen wettelijke 66 2025 67 2030 tijdens komende legislatuur nog enkel effect hebben beloofde pil ver- hogen verzachten uitzonderingen creëren zogenaamde ‘zware beroepen’ sociale partners slaagden er akkoord vinden wat zware beroepen Minister Pensioenen sloot deel vakbonden overheidspersoneel regeling openbaar ambt (om ge- plande afschaffing ‘preferenti- ele tantièmes’ ambtenarenpensioen deels compenseren) raakte geblokkeerd menings- verschillen schaduw bijzonder gevoelige kwestie boven hele pensioenbeleid; volgende slechts nieuwe werven pensioen- ein- deloopbaanbeleid beginnen wanneer opgelost noodzaak flexibel pensioenstelsel Een uitweg mogelijk indien consistente keuze maakt wil zeggen waarin ruime keuzevrijheid bestaat betrek- king moment zo georgani- seerd ze zowel billijk als financieel duurzaam krijgt dan minder dramatisch karakter Commissie Pensioenhervorming 2020-2040 (CPH) gaf 2015 rege- advies flexibiliteit pensioenstel- sel Ze stelde flexi- biliteit Belgische verder diepen consistent maken (Commissie 2015) Onze idee was lengte loopbaan spil vormen doorslaggevend opnemen We bepleitten grote konden maar we stelden vervroegde sionering ‘negatieve actuariële correcties’ ingevoerd zouden Dergelijke correcties bestaan (meer) België; ons land daarin zeer uitzon- derlijk Actuariële zorgen ervoor (verwachte) totale som pensioenuitkeringen krijgen (verwacht) overlij- statistisch beïnvloed Bijzonder voorstel negatieve gebaseerd CPH uitdrukkelijk lagere voeren Inzake pleitten iedereen toegankelijke gelijke vereiste loopb- aanduur Wel aparte berekening pensioenhoogte: sneller opbouwen anderen hen oen ten dele compenseren eerder marginaal moest blijven procedure volledig verantwoor- delijk selectie dergelijke binnen beperkte gesloten budgettaire enveloppe Laat me concreet voorbeeld geven techniek leggen Neem begon werken 18de (een weinig geschoold ie- mand) daarnaast pas toen hij 22 hooggeschoold iemand) bijvoorbeeld vanaf 63 zonder enige correctie (zijn omvat 45 jaar; laat waarrond of positieve optreden) hooggeschoolde wel Nog anders gezegd: laaggeschoolden begonnen ‘normale’ hooggeschoolden 22ste ‘norma- le’ Wie stopt haar ‘normale pensioenleeftijd’ gepenaliseerd diegene 18 wachten 63ste verjaardag vooraleer kan: (geheel gedeeltelijk) opneemt facto gaat cor- rectie toela- vrij combineren betaalde arbeid moeten voldoende krachtig Indien zwak zullen veel slecht uitdraaien betaalbaarheid systeem Opdat sterke pensioencorrecties teerbaar je gemakkelijk lang volhoudt rekenregels hoogte bepalen iets gunstiger Dat nadelige correc- ties kun- nen neutraliseren Hoelang cruciale essentie afweging tussen mate soepel ener- zijds gemiddelde pensioenen anderzijds Als loopbaan- voorwaarde soepelheid leidt praktijk gemiddeld kortere loopbanen norm goede pensioe- leiden loopbaanvoorwaarde loop- baan dichter buurt maatschappelijke versterkt getrapt Men onderscheid loopbaanduur toegang geeft gedeeltelijk ‘deel- tijds pensioen’ langere waarna op- genomen daar ver deeltijds moge- lijk enkele jaren ‘volledig’ termijn plaats komen uittredestelsels nu Afhankelijk formules deel- huidige (zie Cockx Dejemeppe Vanderlinden 2017) ‘deeltijdse pensionering’ ontwikkelen veronderstelt echter peil vol- doende goed is: gedeelte opgenomen komt bena- dering immers korting (voor gedeelte) blijft einde leven breed vervroegingsformules risico lage waar vandaag rust lager Betere veron- derstellen samenleving bereid financieren; omwille evenwicht generaties vereist bereidheid gemiddel- langer Daarmee cirkel rond: uitdaging organiseren verbeteren Zoals gezegd benadering radicale variant inhou- helemaal minimale meer (alléén telt) lijkt standig: uiteindelijk mijns inziens best combinaties duur leeftijd- loopbaanvoorwaarden soe- peler lijnen inspiratie pleidooi volgd: speelt mogelijkheid wilde horen Sterker bestaande slimme wie doorwerkt zogenoemde pensioenbonus afgeschaft Om leidspiste bepleit duidelijk nodig dieper inga discussie Goede praktijk: Tot 2014 kregen gebruik maakten doorwerkten strikt geno- elke dag doorwerk- kleine bonus nam vorm forfait extra interessant men- gold gelijkgestelde periodes SWT (brugpensioen) werkloosheid: effectief Concreet 65 40 had één nadat gaan; hing net samen Met andere woorden: Jan Piet even oud waren bo- nus opbouwde terwijl (omdat Jans vroeger gestart was) Het bouwde ouder Piet) Doordat toegevoegd sioenbedrag doorbrak (relatief lage) berekeningsplafonds gelden werknemers zelfstandigen pensioenbo- hield evenmin rekening principe ‘eenheid loopbaan’ werknemers- zelfstandigenstelsel ander betekende aanmoedigde onaf- hankelijk bijkomende pe- riode effectieve tewerkstelling verdiende; koos doorwerken beloond paste dynamische actief blij- ven functies carrière gemaakt argument waarmee uitlegde sterk ef- fect verlengen juist mogen verrassen Aangezien invoering inhield invoe- a priori twee effecten uittredegedrag verwachten degenen werk loopbaan: enerzijds prikkel uittrede stellen (het ‘substitutie-effect’: opportuniteitskost ter- ‘verloren groter) ander- vervroegen ‘inkomenseffect’: opbouwt Veronderstel bestaand budget (zonder bedrag) invoeren pensioenleeftijd) malus wette- lijke dergelijk scenario zijn: inkomenseffect substitutie-effect dezelfde Achteraf bekeken oenbonus vooral efficiënte manier oenen verhogen: verbetert reeks negatief feitelijke krijg licht po- sitief Anders aanzien verbeterde pensioenbedrag ontstaat gecombineerde bonus/malus verbetering evo- lueert dynamisch ontstaan Veron- derstel leeftijdsvoorwaarden toekomst strenger worden; vergroot globale ‘substitutie-effect’ spelen beduidend werknemer loon na vier eer- der (op 61 41 hoogde circa 2 5% gelijkaardige werkte laag verhoogde (Com- missie tabel 4-B pp 19-20) Deze weegt absoluut tegen winst boeken zette stap terug voor- naar logischer resultaat echt duurzame qua Nochtans ‘deeltijds Principieel uitstekende stel- brengen verkiezingen parlement goedge- keurd beantwoordt opvatting genieten wer- kende voldoen tewerk- gesteld geweest belope 80% voltijdse betrekking gedurende twaalf kalendermaanden voorafgaan aanvraag Hij bovendien beroepsactiviteit zodanig verminderen hoger 50% administratieve bepalingen vereisen specifiek controleapparaat; houden ze- kere onrechtvaardigheid werkten verdienen (50% levert ene andere) zinvolle aangevoerd al onderlijnt evenwel beter herinvoering (fors versterkte) toe bijdragen dubbelslag tekenen pensioenbeleid: verbe- teren correcte incentives mits verdere modulering allereerste prioriteit eerst berekenen impact fors versterkte pensioenbonus: laagste toekomstige begrotingen bonusformule deeltijdse omkaderen Vervolgens onderzocht verbeteringen ni- veau haalbaar alle duidelijkheid ben getrouwd precieze formule vroegere pensioenbonus; essen- tie logisch baangevoelige pensioenvervroeging ontmoedigen uitstel aanmoedigen Zo kun vrijheid Parallelle uitdagingen Vlaams Gezien situatie belang federaal sioenstelsel flexibi- liteit verlenging hand Mensen natuurlijk doel zich: wel- actieve fase Werknemers tevreden gepensioneerden inkomen schikken houdbaar vertrouwen inboezemt elementen bre- verdelings- welzijnsvraagstuk via beleidssporen wijze bredere welzijnsoverwegingen spoor betreft levenslang leren gerichte activering vierde steunt selectieve bijdrageverminderingen werkgevers tewerkstellen Ik con- centreer onderzoek et (2017) kritische vragen bijdrage- verminderingen voorstander kritisch voorzag jongeren resultaten medeauteurs doen nieuw nadenken Zij vast 2002 georganiseerd werden positief hadden tenzij sectoren brugpensioen zelfs stond tegenover diegenen on- leeftijdsgrens vielen onderliggende analyse inte- ressant werpt gevolgen volgt ga hypo- these kiest inbegrip bekijk alsnog hypothetische ervan brugpensionering toelaat oudere ontslaan kostelijk werkgever werk- gevers beschikken dienst vaak vergelijking toegevoegde waarde zelf leveren bedrijf Precies daarom gunstig deelgroep goedkope ont- slagen groot verschil pensioen: afdanking vrijwillige hem verplichten Deeltijds consequenties (vandaag SWT) omdat meetelt latere nemen onder zekere druk precies ogen productief gezorgd werkge- vers ‘dumpen’ gebeuren bijdragevermindering uitsluitend toegespitst leeftijdsgroep (deeltijds) zinvol stelt baten opwegen kosten (Cockx daarover optimistisch) oog samenhang beleidsagenda dringend vergt 3 aanbodzijde pre- ferenties terugbrengt thema ‘kwaliteit werk’ ontbreekt controle eigen zelfsturing autonomie belang- rijk beleidsinitiatieven verleden innovatie arbeidsorganisa- agenda (zoals Flanders Sy- nergy) opnieuw stof gehaald Wat wetenschappelijk internationaal derzoek welzijn betekenis werkne- mers zaak maximaal va- loriseren vullen beleidsuitdagingen Ten gronde breder louter vermijden wig loonkost produc- tiviteit voortijdige uitstoot arbeidsproces volgens schets- kansen biedt ervaren slag willen Zowel belangrijke hefbomen handen ontwikkeling stimuleren Frank Vandenbroucke Universiteit Amsterdam Noten 1. besluiten econometrisch verho- Scholiers Vansteenkiste ontleent overtuigingskracht snelheden toenam 2012 2. context vind evident zeker middengeschoolde 2015a 2015b) cijfers (2018b) sterken overtuiging zeg- gen acties laaggeschool- situeren domein bege- leiding opleiding eventueel aangevuld lastenvermindering kwetsbare doel- groep (maar jongeren) 3. Verloning anciënniteit onderzoekers tegenstrijdige signalen rond Bibliografie B M Linden België: werkt beleid? Tijdschrift Steunpunt 27(1) 99- 107 Leuven: / Uitgeverij Acco (2014) betrouwbaar sociaal contract Voorstellen structurele hervorming pensioenstelsels Brussel juni (2015) Zwa- re eerlijke pensioensysteem Aanvullend Com- april S (2018a) Uittredeleeftijd neemt versneld kaap zicht (Werk Focus 2018 nr 14) Leu- ven: Doelgroepen werk? blik arbeidsmarktpositie doelgroepen Doelgroepenbeleid 28(1) 19-26 F (2015a) arbeids- markt verspilt zwakste betaalt Morgen 4 februari p 24 (2015b) impulsen helpen Tijd 13 november

Six conditions pour une bonne gouvernance des pensions

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Six conditions pour une bonne gouvernance des pensions Ce document reflète l’avis unanime, obtenu le 25 mai 2019, du Conseil Académique en matière de (Bea Cantillon, Etienne Callataÿ, Philippe Demol, Pierre Devolder, Jean Hindriks, Ria Janvier, Françoise Masai, Gabriel Perl, Erik Schokkaert, Yves Stevens, Frank Vandenbroucke, Elly Van Velde). Il a été publié, avec quelques amendements et ajouts nature rédactionnelle, dans Le Soir 29 p. 22. Les ont constitué un thème important pendant la campagne électorale. Evidemment, tourne autour propositions ponctuelles, comme niveau pension minimum ou l’âge légale. Ces devront toutefois être traduites vraie politique et, que cette conversion puisse menée à bien, il faudra qu’elle obéisse gouvernance. Nous retenons ici six. Premièrement, les mesures prendre s’inscrire système logique cohérent. Par exemple, si on veut donner beaucoup liberté sur choix moment où l’on prend sa pension, faut corrections assurer l’équité entre ceux qui partent après longue carrière plus courte. On doit donc débattre forme ces leur importance. même défi cohérence se pose désire mettre place régime partielles, s’inscrit approche globale fin carrière. exemples illustrent règle générale : déterminants l’architecture ne peuvent venir « » mais doivent au contraire présider l’élaboration chaque mesure concrète. Deuxièmement, est contrat générations indiquer clairement ce jeunes attendre long terme. Ainsi par atteindre montant X 2024, demander comment évoluera avenir lointain, examinant aussi soutenabilité scénarios peut pas dire aux que, eux verra bien ». Troisièmement, clarifier part l’idée continuera évoluer prochaine législature oui, base quels principes. C’est fait double question. D’une part, clair objectifs poursuivis terme (veut-on exemple moyenne suive chemin parallèle celui salaire moyen ?) stratégie soutenant (y inclus modes financement). D’autre faire idée manière dont adaptations futures auront lieu décidons-nous dès maintenant d’adaptations concrètes ? Ou fixons- nous règles jeu objectives détermineront feront lumière d’évolutions connaissons encore (la hausse bien-être, l’espérance vie…) laissons-nous l’avenir entièrement ouvert Quatrièmement, aucune décision prise sans ses conséquences aient l’objet projections chiffrées terme, tant termes financière qu’en d’adéquation sociale. entendons l’horizon 2040, soit juste sommet papy-boom, 2060, quand d’aujourd’hui partiront retraite. Comme évidemment prédit certitude, compte éventail (plus moins croissance économique, vie…). La effet l’art mesurer gérer l’incertitude partager risques. Cinquièmement, repousser questions difficiles liées différence d’espérance vie notamment instruits formés, droits inégaux hommes femmes, qualité travail notion ‘métiers pénibles’. devra évolutions sociétales, tels changements structures familiales, cohabitation rapport mariage classique, nouvelles réalités marché travail… recherche réponses laissée tard d’emblée intégrer préoccupations sociales trajet réforme. Sixièmement, soumises large concertation sociale politique, y associant étroitement partenaires sociaux. Cette structurée. existe demeurant différentes institutions jouer rôle national Travail, Comité Pensions, Centre d’Expertise (au sein Bureau fédéral Plan), d’Etude Vieillissement, académique Pensions (le successeur Commission Réforme 2020 – 2040 avait remis son juin 2014). Un nouveau gouvernement expliciter qu’il entend attribuer chacune institutions. administrations pouvoir stade précoce opinion faisabilité administrative propositions. politiques besoin c’est d’ambition temps d’une certaine prudence ambitieux regarder loin réformer profondeur, exige cerne l’effet global possibles décisions avant trancher. combinaison caractérise bonnes réformes.

Zes richtlijnen voor goed pensioenbestuur

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Zes richtlijnen voor goed pensioenbestuur Dit document is op 25 mei 2019 ondertekend door alle leden van de Academische Raad het Pensioenbeleid (Bea Cantillon, Etienne Callataÿ, Philippe Demol, Pierre Devolder, Jean Hindriks, Ria Janvier, Françoise Masai, Gabriel Perl, Erik Schokkaert, Yves Stevens, Frank Vandenbroucke, Elly Van Velde). De tekst is, met een aantal redactionele aanpassingen, gepubliceerd Standaard 29 2019, p. 37. Pensioenen waren belangrijk thema tijdens verkiezingen. Vanzelfsprekend draait campagne rond punctuele voorstellen, zoals hoogte minimumpensioen, of vraag wat er moet gebeuren wettelijke pensioenleeftijd. Voorstellen moeten vervolgens omgezet worden in beleidsmaatregelen. Om deze vertaalslag te maken, hij beantwoorden aan criteria ‘goed bestuur’. We stellen zes voor. Ten eerste, maatregelen onderdeel zijn logisch en samenhangend pensioenstelsel. Bijvoorbeeld, als men mensen grote vrijheid wil geven inzake moment waarop ze hun pensioen opnemen, dan ook correcties nodig, omwille rechtvaardigheid tussen die na lange loopbaan gaan kortere vertrekken. Dus bespreken hoe best uitzien krachtig zijn. Dezelfde uitdaging dient zich ‘gedeeltelijk pensioen’ invoeren, samenhangende benadering einde loopbaan. Deze voorbeelden illustreren algemene regel: keuzes bepalend architectuur pensioenstelsel mogen niet ‘achteraf’ komen; leidend bij uitwerken elk concrete maatregelen. tweede, contract generaties. Het duidelijk maken jonge termijn kunnen verwachten. minimumpensioen 2024 bedrag X bereiken, we bepalen verdere toekomst zal evolueren, houdbaarheid zo’n scenario onderzoeken. Tegen jongeren zeggen dat hen ‘wel zullen zien’. derde, ervan uitgaat volgende legislatuur verder blijft evolueren. En, denkt basis welke principes evolueren? Daarbij gaat over dubbele vraag. Enerzijds helder doelstellingen nagestreefd (wil men, bijvoorbeeld, gemiddelde pensioenen gelijke tred houden lonen?) strategie om bereiken (wat onder meer financiering inhoudt). Anderzijds, idee vormen wijze latere aanpassingen gebeuren: legt nu al helemaal vast? Of bepaalt objectieve ‘spelregels’ waarvan later licht evoluties nog kent (de stijging welvaart, levensverwachting…)? laat volledig open? vierde, mag geen enkele beslissing genomen vooraleer becijferde lange-termijn- verkenningen gemaakt gevolgen ervan, zowel sociaal houdbaarheid. Met lange- termijn-verkenningen bedoelen tot 2040 (nadat effect naoorlogse babyboom piek bereikt heeft) 2060 (wanneer vandaag staan). Omdat zekerheid voorspelbaar lange-termijn-verkenningen waaier scenario’s (meer minder economische groei, levensverwachting…): pensioenbeleid immers omgaan onzekerheid delen risico’s. risico’s verkend worden. vijfde, kan moeilijke kwesties uit schuiven, verschil gezonde levensverwachting hoog opgeleid laag zijn, mannen vrouwen, kwaliteit werk notie ‘zware beroepen’. Bij uittekenen toekomstig maatschappelijke meenemen, wijzigingen gezinsvorming, rol samenleven versus klassieke huwelijk, nieuwe realiteiten arbeidsmarkt… zoeken antwoorden achteraf komen: bezorgdheden meteen inbouwen hervormingstraject. zesde, voorstellen voorgelegd breed politiek overleg, waarbij sociale partners nauw betrokken overleg gestructureerd Intussen bestaan verschillende instellingen daar spelen, maar zeer is: Nationale Arbeidsraad, Nationaal Pensioencomité, Kenniscentrum (bij Planbureau), Studiecommissie Vergrijzing, opvolger Commissie Pensioenhervorming 2020-2040, juni 2014 haar rapport voorlegde). Een regering verduidelijken ziet instellingen. Ook pensioenadministraties vroeg stadium besluitvorming mening administratieve toepasbaarheid voorstellen. Wat nodig heeft, dus combinatie ambitie én zekere voorzichtigheid: ver vooruit kijken grondig hervormen, voorzichtigheid eist eerst globale mogelijke beslissingen kaart brengen beslist. recept goede hervormingen.

L’impératif d’une flexibilité équitable dans le système de pension

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L’impératif d’une flexibilité équitable dans le système de pension Frank Vandenbrouckei Universiteit van Amsterdam Contribution à la revue Pyramides (nr 32) éditée par Centre d’Etude et Recherches en Administration Publique (CERAP ULB) les éditions Larcier ; numéro spécial soutien du Colloque « La réforme des pensions pour quels enjeux sociétaux ? » 24 septembre 2019 Version 5 30 04 Abstract (français): Par rapport d’autres questions sociétales débat sur porte un sujet techniquement simple mais émotionnellement chargé car ont tout voir avec deux fort délicates : sécurité liberté Les doivent apporter Tout monde s’accordera ce point Mais nous sous-estimons mesure laquelle aussi Dans première partie cette contribution j’indique essentielles qui se posent société tant que contrat intergénérationnel j’explique succinctement peut avoir plusieurs interprétations deuxième est consacrée troisième j’aborde discussion métiers pénibles Ceci m’amène quatrième considérer voulons conserver éléments notre tradition bismarckienne (c d assurancielle) politique ou si devrions opter combinaison base (universelle uniforme) complémentaires l’instar Pays-Bas Je conclus une proposition pragmatique Keywords âge retraite Belgique sociale (English) Vandenbroucke The imperative of fair flexibility in the Belgian system forthcoming nr 32 (2019) CERAP (ULB) and Editions Compared to other contemporary societal debates reform raises relatively technical However it implies a highly emotional debate because involves two sensitive issues: personal security freedom Everybody would concur that first objective is create But we may underestimate extent which also about In part this paper draws on my experience Commission Pension Reform 2020-2040 I summarize key arise as an intergenerational social contract briefly explain how notion ‘security’ have different interpretations second focuses ‘freedom’ notably need for coherently organized flexible retirement age third ponder ongoing ‘arduous jobs’ argue well-organized more promising solution than specific regulations arduous jobs fourth relate these discussions another debate: should replace has bismarckian roots by combination universal uniform basic earnings-related pillar exists Netherlands? conclude with pragmatic proposal view make progress policy Keywords: Belgium ii Trois débats Le premier pilier belge – légale repose principe defined benefit prestations définies financé répartition signifie promesse basée données ayant trait uniquement carrière bénéficiaire individuel (les revenus perçus durée l’âge prise etc ) son statutiii paramètres calcul ne changent pas Ce conséquence lorsque nombre pensionnés augmente raison effets d’un baby-boom passé augmentation l’espérance vie il faut davantage d’argent financer actée En pratique souci d’éviter trop forte charge financière engendre permanente systèmes variables comme donc fréquemment réformes 10 dernières années n’ont rien changé au fait l’on modifié continuellement saper confiance Existe-t-il alternatives oppose différentes écoles L’une voit privatisation l’unique C’est inexact n’y place ici développer encore fois l’argumentation iv A côté partisans passage capitalisation accompagné partielle totale école s’exprime Celle-ci veut remplacer prestation définie contributions actifs sont définitivement fixées déterminent montant s’ajustent vieillissement population être compensé taux puisque celui-ci fixé tel scénario baisser aux professionnels vieillit évidemment tenter baisse faisant travailler gens plus longtemps conduit nécessairement maintenir niveau n’est sa finalité Un organisé cas exemple modèle Notional Defined Contributions (NDC) utilisé Suède où bénéficiaires comptes notionnels également concevoir cadre régime points (cf régimes AGIRC /ARRCO France) Réforme Pensions (CRP) remis 2014 était expressément opposée suédois (et basé définies) v solutions extrêmes vi seuls assurer financement tandis poids l’ajustement entièrement fixes qu’on augmenter Une véritable solidarité entre générations suppose l’impact (tant avantages inconvénients) soit réparti requiert bien futuresvii puissent évoluer Encore faut-il noter provenir seulement travail (on élargir imposable) Elles peuvent fiscalité patrimoine quand hausse dépenses nécessite Parce qu’elles partagent ni celui bons modèles outre fixité ces illusion Des basés ajustés précisément parce qu’ils entraînent problème garantie fausse avons l’expérience non toujours viables temps unilatéralement réactions sociales inévitables viii CRP plaidé compromis défini constitue ambition termes justice intergénérationnelle j’utiliserai dernière expression reste texte départ partenaires sociaux législateur définissent concernant qualité entendent sauvegarder long terme approche question l’ambition moyennes moyens (nets contribution) doit adéquat stable durable Il s’agit vrai Selon définir stipuler mécanismes d’ajustement nécessaires toute circonstance notamment Nous sommes partis mécanisme prioritaire l’allongement carrières Toutefois cela fonctionnerait serait insuffisant (nous basons ») modération étions d’avis soustraite vicissitudes budget l’Etat On forcément adhérer concrète formulée convient force constater qu’il y trois mener 1) Quelle doit-il futures entend-on stabilisation contributions) Ou s’agit-il d’autre chose calculée fonction aura moment 2) Quel autrement dit quelle promettre suivantes Si s’accorde estimer ancrer effet fixe préfère utiliser autre boussole comment définit-on l’« objectif 3) ajustements continuer réaliser objectifs dès présent futurs indépendamment l’évolution démographique toutes incertitudes implique (c’est stratégie gouvernements belges suivi jusqu’à présent) sont-ils effectués règle jeu préalablement convenue ancrée législation auquel s’accommoder façon progressive évolutions démographiques inconnues portent essentiellement savoir choisit Est-ce (qui selon moi s’avère illusoire) est-ce revenus? permet d’évoluer est- décisions politiques discrétionnaires Ces indépendants d’accord l’être l’ancrage loi convenus n’aime genre quasi- automatisme prôné démocratique options légitimes Hélas n’a été perçu invitation concertation ouverte durant précédente législature s’est focalisé totalement phase ensuite mesures ponctuelles compte d’étude mixte publique l’unité droits assimilés finalement l’approche élections alors recentré maintenant sans vision devrait pauvreté grande adoptée gouvernement Michel 2014-2015 décidé d’emblée immédiatement légal augmenterait ainsi mis charrue avant bœufs ignoré l’essentiel posées De leur syndicats aussitôt défensive face lieu s’en servir lancer nature garanties Parlement relevé défi réussi expliquer proposé n’était qu’une technique service conception d’équité fin soi sûr modifiable (comme l’illustre Pierre Devolder Jean Hindriks édition-ci Pyramidesix) Résultat sous beaucoup purement paramétriques affabulations avait confusion inquiétude réelle j’ai esquissé fondamentales soulève apporte-t-il garantit-il évolue-t-il J’espère acteurs seront effectivement capables après mai répondre même s’ils font faudra trancher essentiel s’impose vraiment sérieusement seule possibilité sortir l’impasse légales travailleurs salariés généreuses dire pose chef Pour évident améliorer minima plafonds Compte tenu nombreux autres défis auxquels confrontés l’amélioration d’augmenter moyen prennent Cela faire graduellement respectant proportionnalité normale période personnes prônent ignorer difficultés difficulté l’augmentation capacité rester actif conditions satisfaisantes varient corrélation surtout bonne santé formation malheureusement évidence empirique établie professionnellement liée perçus) Bien entendu devons œuvrer meilleures active nouvelles formes d’organisation d’autonomie d’autogestion facteurs dont savons contribuent volonté n’empêche possibilités présentent souvent généralement exercés hautement qualifiées peu Evidemment corrélations statistiques exceptions l’observation statistique moyenne existent renvoie Cependant d’entamer difficile examinons d’abord large lequel amène synonyme général souhaitent prendre n’aiment concentrer leurs propres projets L’accès subordonné examens médicaux l’obligations chercher c’est sortie règne ceux veulent projet personnel convergent exemples classiques politiciens académiques chefs d’entreprise professions libérales hasard eux plaident volontiers Sur considérations renforcer existe déjà lui cohérence partons préférences introduire choix manière soutenable plan financier perçue constituer pivot l’élément déterminant l’accès proposions d’introduire corrections actuarielles négatives anticipée ( symétriquement positives report pension) visent éviter total reçoivent décès d’autant élevé précoce reposent arguments raisons (le personne demande B identiques signifier flux attendu pendant important attendre) évitent décision d’anticiper encouragée financièrement quasiment tous curieusement (elles existé jadis supprimées) x particularité baser délibérément choisi différencier caractéristiques individuelles telles atteint d’aucuns proposent xi différenciation stigmatisante (« vous pouvez partir n’étiez capable d’obtenir diplôme supérieur semblait légitime respectueuse Sans entrer concret illustrer l’esprit Imaginez commencé 18 ans (une qualifiée) qu’à 22 pourrait demander 63 aucune correction négative 45 cet là autour duquel Autrement contre qualifiée elle soumise actuarielle comprend âge-là normal 67 Celui arrête sera pénalisé autant attendre 63ème anniversaire pouvoir l’idée reçoive moindre s’il prend (complète partielle) c’est-à-dire obtiendrait élevée continue Déterminer requise cruciale trouver équilibre degré souplesse voulu égard souple condition mène courtes norme aboutira diminution l’activité réduction cotisations adéquates comparaison moins Cette recherche d’équilibre l’occasion d’envisager paliers distinction donne droit partiel longue possible décider (périodes d’inactivité assimilées incluses) complète 42 (avec appliquées forme 41 (évidemment affiner nuancer minimale minimum plein aucun 62 l’est 60 obtient chiffres je servent raisonnement fond calculs rigoureux formuler propositions précises budgétaires inépuisa

Poverty and child deprivation in Belgium

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Poverty and child deprivation in Belgium A comparison of risk factors the three Regions neighbouring countries TITLE : a Cette publication existe aussi en français sous le titre: La pauvreté et la déprivation des enfants Belgique: comparaison facteurs de risque dans les trois régions pays voisins Deze publicatie bestaat het Nederlands onder titel: Armoede deprivatie bij Belgische kinderen: een vergelijking van risicofactoren drie gewesten buurlanden from King Baudouin Foundation Rue Brederode 21 1000 Bruxelles AUTHOR(S) Anne-Catherine Guio (LISER – Luxembourg Institute Socio-Economic Research) Frank Vandenbroucke (Amsterdam University) With support EU-SILC Analysis network (Net-SILC3) COORDINATION FOR THE KING BAUDOUIN FOUNDATION Françoise Pissart Director Anne-Françoise Genel Senior Project Coordinator Saida Sakali Nathalie Troupée Knowledge Manager Ann Vasseur Programme Management GRAPHIC DESIGN Salutpublic LAYOUT Trinôme PRINT ON DEMAND Manufast-ABP asbl sheltered workshop This can be downloaded free charge our website www kbs-frb printed version this electronic ordered (free charge) on LEGAL DEPOSIT D/2893/2018/39 ORDER NUMBER 3618 March 2019 Belgian National Lottery TABLE OF CONTENTS Colophon 4 Foreword 7 Summary 9 1. Introduction 13 2. General overview regions compared to EU 14 3. Drivers 3.1. Theoretical framework 3.2. Empirical results 26 4. Modelling 27 5. Further reflections policy recommendations 33 References 45 Appendix 1: list country abbreviations 49 Is anyone still unaware alarming figures poverty today? For almost decade they have been brought attention policy-makers general public hammering home same (poverty risks 40% 25% 15% respectively Brussels Wallonia Flanders) with weakening collective indignation even creating political resignation Do we need reminded that stakes are high? must obvious as issue concerns not only children but future entire society The precarious living conditions these prevent them developing harmoniously such bad start life has long-term impact In other words if improve children’s their development young age refute fatalistic statistical prediction whereby poor every chance becoming adult is reason why stresses for an ambitious regarding families Resignation option We constantly look ways mobilising relevant actors Taking fresh at statistics one way motivated publish research thank authors report Professor (from University Amsterdam) (at LISER-Luxembourg NET-SILC3 analysed explaining across European addition focused differences between its well Flanders They proposed additional view disseminate it widely possible indicators did yield more encouraging picture than percentages mentioned above nevertheless hope analysis will prove motivating take action two reasons Firstly shifts rather abstract notion “threshold poverty” close examination reality lives Secondly themselves contain seeds because directly point levers Studying reveals shameful shortcomings instance many 33% deprived holidays 19 8% regular leisure activities 15 7% new clothes 10% books Internet level comparable Croatia Malta Poland United Kingdom whilst where among lowest Europe 41% (quasi-)jobless households considered being researchers wish limit contribution data also submitted containing which integrated nuances complementary ideas suggested by members committee composed experts working field These appear last part show no individual actor single authority succeed alone situation significantly improved through combination tax benefit policies measures domains childcare education extracurricular housing training employment large array fields competences come together requires vision supported all levels government well-coordinated local If want real investment fight against aware problem see less consequence choice result social processes specific mechanisms exclusion long run highly beneficial underprivileged whole would like express thanks remarkable scientific work input present laid down people below opinions suggestions • Séverine Acerbis Badje Antoine Borighem ONE – Direction Études Stratégies De Bleeckere Vlaamse Overheid Departement Onderwijs Vorming Strategische Beleidsondersteuning Valérie Desomer Fédération CPAS wallons Union Villes Communes Wallonie organisationnelle opérationnelle politique David Vaal Netwerk tegen armoede François Ghesquière Recherche Évaluation IWEPS Anne Giacomelli l’Enseignement Supérieur Catholique FédESuC Kathy Jacobs Kind & Gezin Afdeling Preventieve Gezinsondersteuning Janssen Réseau wallon lutte contre Fanny Laurent Le Forum-Bruxelles inégalités Sarah Luyten Observatorium voor Gezondheid Welzijn Brussel-Hoofdstad Christiane Malcorps Solvay Isabelle Martijn POD Maatschappelijke integratie Florence Pirard ULg Faculté Psychologie Sciences l’Éducation Département d’éducation formation Tinne Rommens rate monetary relative measure depends income each under review: those whose falls 60% median national used another indicator study “absolute” daily difficulties encountered based concept access ensemble 17 items necessary any today include whether: eats fruit vegetables day; invite friends play eat time time; participate school trips events; child’s adequately warm; leave least week’s holiday year; etc he/she greater number lacked severe agreed 2018 compare (nationally Regions) It shows roughly similar France However when higher threshold (i e larger items) assess difference neighbours widens Thus 12% four 9% Netherlands Germany share 2% average masks Regions: 29% 22% Within ranking top group Region occupies extreme position very high forms intermediate includes analyses principally associated household resources (disposable debt ) needs (housing healthcare costs composition (for single-parent family influences both costs) variables differs considerably richer linked needs/costs greatest generally most disadvantaged There therefore just socio-economic populations proportion without employment: variable absence job different account taken (e g income) wealth continues means vulnerable groups presenting characteristics better protected wealthiest poorest nation’s interpreted approximation certain measured model in-kind quality financial accessibility health transport exert either or face similarities Household major determinant exerts euro offers protection increases (almost) rented accommodation heavily indebted suffering chronic problems Deprivation influenced parents’ training; particularly case doubt overall unemployment skilled comparatively frequent periods Compared characterised explained factors: hand especially attribute fact minimum benefits (such assistance) do lift beneficiaries cannot ignored (41%) despite much lower conclusions emphasise fewer provide proven examples remind us ratified Nations Convention Rights Child implies unambiguous responsibility rights should beginning next legislature motivate federal regional community governments establish “master plans” important role plans cover wide range areas: Employment: reduce wage increase net low-skilled workers investing economy Living standards: upgrading replacement incomes so constitute adequate stronger targeted context reform (which now competence Housing: increasing provision providing increased agencies ensure coaching) extension renters Early childhood: affordable rules priority Public services: services (health culture sports…) accessible everyone Education: creation so-called “broad” schools embedded capable tackling partners regard to: nutrition (by healthy meals) educational organising pupils) schooling limiting materials activities) All networking proactive outreaching approach Local plays critical respect merits support: reaching out efficacy existing INTRODUCTION paper determinants using child-specific adopted draws econometric Marlier Verbunt (2018) who micro macro drivers 31 1 Our aim understand within organised follows Section 2 defines provides illustrative 3 reviews macro- micro-determinants highlighted al presents 5 concludes discusses some Research Luxembourg) Amsterdam (Netherlands) builds largely written third Network funded Eurostat solely E-mail address correspondence: anne-catherine guio@liser lu GENERAL OVERVIEW CHILD DEPRIVATION IN BELGIUM AND BELGIAN REGIONS COMPARED TO COUNTRIES best accurate information actual making assumptions about sharing develop i may differ parents Such was collected 2009 2014 Survey Income Conditions (EU-SILC) were aged years respondent (not themselves) According survey protocol given does item then assumed belonging lack keep mind private surveyed institutions homeless squats adults irregular situations) included final (2017) measurement consists following material aspects deprivation: Child: second-hand) pairs properly fitting shoes meat chicken fish vegetarian equivalent suitable 6. outdoor equipment 7. indoor games 8. 9. celebrations special occasions 10. invitation 11. participation events 12. 13. Household: worn-out furniture 14. arrears 15. Adults household: 16. warm 17. car use Lacking sign lacking incidence presented Table EU-28 ‘heat map’ highlights showing consistently several (in orange/red) Bulgaria Romania contrary low (Nordic Austria green) there mixed depending displaying relatively score others At bottom table contrasted (see cautionary note below) placed five performers performances Czech Republic Portugal UK Greece Baltic Republics Slovakia Serbia One set EU: comparing highlight absolute entities contrast usually applied monitor “Heat map” shares (% population 1-15 covered 2014) Sweden Finland Iceland Denmark Switzerland Slovenia Spain Cyprus Italy Ireland kingdom Estonia Lithuania Latvia Hungary Source: Authors’ computation basis cross-sectional far percentage item; extent cumulate deprivations Figure distribution (aged 15) according (Panel A) (the Panel B) (BR) 50% (three define deprivation) extremely (WA) attain 43% 14%; (VL) lower: 23% 4% B Indeed 3+ (13%) (11%) (8%) gap focus deprivation): example although (2%) reaches 7-9% Distribution % years) A: 60 54 ■ W VL BR BE 50 43 40 30 29 28 23 20 12 25 22 16 10 8 6 0 à H 1+ 2+ 4+ 5+ 6+ 7+ 8+ 9+ 11+ 12+ 13+ 14+ 15+ 16+ B: Neighbouring 35 l+ authors’ NB: How explain neighbours? charts investigate relationship (a short cut signals (quasi-)joblessness Then go step further examine compares defined equivalised Since varies (defined above) ‘very intensity’; 18-59 excluding students) effectively during 20% could theoretically year review intensity above: that: positioned performing Nordic (except measure) joblessness Hungarian (disposable) calculated steps: a) mon- etary received source member itself added up (these capital cash inter-household transfers) taxes contributions paid deducted sum; b) order reflect household’s size total (net) divided “equivalent adults” OECD-modified scale gives weight (1 first second subsequent person over 14); c) finally resulting figure disposable attrib- uted equally (adults children) Its suffers highest 2: Percentage (out 17) suffer Member States non-EU Appendix1 inclusion 3: live 4: (average aggregated heterogeneity situations league Countries rates terms illustrates potential diversity institutional pursued (child) household’s/parents’ significant DRIVERS section summarises main findings (2018); analyse models From theoretical identified sets likelihood and/or intensity: longer-term command resources; costs; relationships types Diagram well-being how consume turn “command resources” Although current proxy available element determined previous ability borrow difficult collect labour market migration background expect correlated easier overcome liquidity constraints younger return human Finally since highly-educated often offspring conjecture bequests contribute Ceteris paribus correlates inherited Similarly likely indicate predictor hamper due imply erosion savings eventually building Social transfers components already definition type design degree pro-poorness adequacy influence argue costs: equal Needs notably depend status tenure explanatory (size household) probability (quasi-) faced parent economically (because possibilities pooling adult) Single reconciling opt part-time inactivity needs/ perspective fixed represent Furthermore necessarily lead Individuals’ preferences into people’s consumption (one shaped cultural ways: interactions activity Health Determinants When able insufficient availability green dataset Important true family/friends direct Household’s “proxied” spending kind Only amount unknown) red Those black results: difficulty measuring (and possibly variables) self- surveys might easy reliable feeling shame admit essential adaptative (people period expectations declare afford) Some empirical 3.2 Verbunt’s powerful predictors majority are: cost burden Their household-level strongly richest related largest whereas deprivation-risk later helps once personal affluence (GDP) matters deserves investigation holds (results published demand) GDP country/region reduces micro-drivers controlled expected priori seems “hidden” contextual between-households affordability systems national/regional proxies “level development” societies negatively conclusion Once power limited except unsurprising used; mean unimportant simply MODELLING compositional element: exceptional jobless (1) countries; (2) simple bivariate indicates non-(quasi-)jobless (we data) To methodology developed summarised 3) specifications robust simplest (all (negative binomial) (ranging function few understanding characteristic suffered “other things equal”) factor joblessness) reference (quasi-)joblessness) grouped sample too small regressed separately) entity column coefficient test whether zero confirm “longer-term “household needs” particular coefficients (last column) An protects Wallonia/Brussels People reached upper negative (although hypothesis examination) well-educated volatility longer spells accumulate erode self-employed member(s) tend As partly correctly challenge distinguishing professional assets constitutes per se rely Debt Tenants home-owners Non-EU migrants native protective Results binomial Coefficient WA/BR WA/BR? VL? significant? -0 0705 yes 1235 (Quasi-)Jobless (reference: (quasi-)jobless) 3043 2654 Primary secondary education) 8051 2932 Upper 6253 07596 Self-employed employed 3592 -1 4786 (ref: 1592 3716 Heavy overburden burden) 2473 3875 Slight 4919 8007 Number 0226 0539 migrant migrant) 0084 1303 Tenant owners rent-free) 8026 5604 3491 9858 Bad 3921 1814 bold (p<0 1) Reading note: Children occurrence region foregoing informs at-risk overrepresented 5: Jobless Self severity: combined (Figure 5) (as shown regression 2) Among 54% WA/BR) make papers co- authored Julie Vinck 2015; F J A-C mainly confirmed negligible discussed (5+ stand- ard (3+ (< standard Variable 57% 64% Edu primary 5% 46% 32% 30% 36% 44% 38% 47% 37% 31% Housing heavy 53% 82% 76% 84% slight 35% 17% 14% 16% 26% 70% 78% 83% 45% 51% Migrant 39% rises 6: (lacking FURTHER REFLECTIONS POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS macroeconomic observable (observable characteristics) apparently parental affect differently Also ceteris countries/ affluent crucial (especially tenants) mitigate internal structure driver complacency Flanders: evidence gathered steadily non-material new-born showed worrisome result: severity (GDP capita target favourable macro-economic conditions: kind) though distributed universally (62% population) represents salary prosperity Both most: quarters segment 66% underestimates low-income played system Macroeconomic 2014-5 Country (1000 PPS) Median PPS child) Total head) Cash In-kind Family GDP) Average gross Pro-poorness (bottom Adequacy inco- me 00 63 70 92 71 38 08 1493 89 34 18 44 69 75 66 09 1450 76 32 82 73 1388 68 74 24 53 62 52 1597 36 90 07 1421 Note: help deciles pre-tax-and-transfer Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) convert amounts expressed currency artificial common equalises purchasing currencies price including currency) OECD Dutch proves grant households’ (Vandenbroucke 2017) coincidence activation agenda Activation assistance decidedly decentralized experience ‘copied’ hold lessons decision makers capacity policy-making municipalities strong recent decades 2015 devolved (Flanders Brussels) marking process growing portion facto decentralization stealth importance non-employed persons “leefloon” “revenu d’intégration”) managed towns communes Unfortunately debate landscape successfully nor communes’ reinforced networks (De Wilde 2016) say attempt coordinate polices Inter-federal Plan 2014-2015) encouraged financially Flemish moment however follow-up initiatives unclear us) weaknesses governance (or untapped potential) add persisting structural notwithstanding successive boost writing Labour Force Statistics (LFS) 2017 state LFS 4) Simultaneously simulations ‘household types’ structurally mediocre Consider unemployed: traditionally ‘net support’ Hence effective lasting effect tackle root causes integration (2019) master plan thorough evidence- non-dogmatic evaluation addressed plan: simultaneously prospects children? solutions lie crossroads relating require changes ‘hard’ implemented effectiveness enhanced coordinated serve overarching objectives reach multidimensional efficient organized authorities refer worries Senate Report provided tem- porary funding continued transferred invested scheme Gemeentefonds fund supporting mu- nicipal budgets); know monitored (Belgian 2015-2016 p 89) ‘jobless ‘(quasi-)jobless SILC See Cantillon Marchal Luigjes Admittedly shift benefits; MIPI database 2013 sports original; tangible efforts needed feature acts series mobility …) thus childhood confronted ever-growing diverse remain spearheads sufficient learn other: exchanges practical evaluate strengthen remainder briefly elaborate pretending exhaust subject questions parents? a. tailor-made scope improvement schemes opportunities low- employers earned matter middle-income earners budgetary compensated micro-simulations suggest positive individuals; moreover signal (future) full compensation hurt retired avoid regressive effects closing individuals objective affecting goes saying mobilisation what ac- tors subsidised sectors Employers HR supports experienced insecure completed map enable precisely orientation made beyond company’s contributes sustainable observation illustrated Recommendations drawn Walloon Fight elections Capéau b. currently motto “the market” accommodate naive invest jobs (subsidised neighbourhood question budgets (The prolong ‘Articles 60-61’ became remains c. Universal care facilitate parents: sufficiently flexible regulatory permit waiting lists reduced (Additional perspectives earn latter upgraded regularly; (leefloon/revenu d’intégration) invalidity emphasis moral hazard realm insurance led encompassing evolution Concern diminish energy water Working full-time preclude hours dependants put pressure underscored (2015-2016) reformed characterized universal flat complemented supplements reforms neutral (when grants account) 11 seen towards universalism traps (where dynamic administrative improvements enhance take-up) crucially confronting d. sections What urgent tenants sector housing? Substantial increasingly rental reader Senate’s states “Social (SVK/AIS) country” (Senate p. 130) Regional instruments encourage landlords property SVK/AIS supply guarantee coaching On “housing pressing strict Here child” eligible removing obstacles exercising domain Van Lancker (2016) Decoster Vanheukelom Dewilde Pannecoucke association substantially preventing ensuring various right respected safety protect potentially ? key preventative remedial influencing equality opportunity outcome capabilities Childcare good location geographical coverage neighbourhoods flexibility opening sake Data uptake under-representation immigrants non-financial (cultural linguistic operational barriers Rules exist French-speaking Community foreseen introduced bill rightly remarks bound Physical criteria stressed Proposals Quality Framework Childhood Education Care insists embrace collaborative promoting early involving organisations staff trained value assure beliefs cultures Pavolini E Schepers (2013) (Crépin Neuberg 2013); http://ec europa eu/assets/eac/education/policy/strategic-framework/archive/documents/ecec-quality- framework_en pdf transition pre-primary involvement stage recognized own Preventative pre- transitions (family certainly well-embedded communities Ensuring facilities fighting access; harmful here become ‘broad schools’ offering roots community? Everyone agree breaking vicious circle mobility) short-term consequences mother left qualifications youngsters leaving inequalities pervasive performance impede upward waves PISA sadly show; space precludes elaborating raises pedagogical organizational issues gradient having postpone treatment cost; https://ec eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index php?title=Unmet_health_care_needs_statistics Baye (2016); Witte Hindriks publications trends Franck Nicaise term basic Wallonia-Brussels Federation interaction welfare one-size-fits-all Nevertheless precondition successful multifaceted (‘brede scholen’ coined partnerships Up movement had traction caution ‘one-size-fits-all’ exhaustive think tackled schools: Nutritional enjoy complete meal day raised idea meals discarded easily: serious compulsory irrespective interesting observe justifies “Finland pupils nursery guaranteed legislation dating 1948 Free preserve learning pedagogic tool teaching manners food eating habits cereals skimmed low-fat milk ” Experiments seeing light 78 (differentiated schools) academic call projects project extended targeting propose comprehensive ‘a foundation children’ origin http://www edu fi/yleissivistava_koulutus/hyvinvointi_koulussa/kouluruokailu/kouluruokailun_historiaa ideal external organisms Thanks teacher independent family’s Teacher appropriate competencies onwards) backgrounds: approaching manner reducing mastering language setting challenges establishing confidence familiar Today prepared demands required Not skills privatisation duality afford reinforce achievement targets applies technical consideration prohibitive exclusionary students “Maximum Bill” principle extra-curricular experiments expenses borne broadened Community-wide Pact Excellent announced progressively envisaged extend followed (firstly “educational” “non-educational” expenses) obviously intention provincial Antwerp Cultural Good premises Artistic sporting ideally obligatory school’ create broader environment around Children’s Houses (Huizen Kind) asset connect committed improving Huizen achieving implementing title Précarité Périnatalité Enfance (Deprivation Perinatality Childhood) 2015-2018 foresees places dialogue concern collaboration worlds Non-take proactively cooperation (cf brugfiguren ‘bridge persons’ deployed build bridges intensive consider subsidy outreach service delivery cornerstone “alliance formed regional/ shared relation KOALA partnership old/ acronym Ouder Activiteiten Lokale Armoedebestrijding (Local Parents Poverty) KOALAs enabled extra 500 UN clear implementation masterplan prime/first ministers route consecutive anti-poverty (focused poverty) Minister-President budget expansion ambitiously poverty/deprivation inter-federal (2014-2015) date masterplans success http://cohesionsociale wallonie be/actions/lutte-contre-la-pauvret%C3%A9 mi-is be/sites/default/files/documents/plan_national_lutte_pauvrete_infantile_0 Federal (http://www miis be/sites/default/files/documents/plan_federal_de_lutte_ contre_la_pauvrete_2016-2019_0 pdf) Vlaams Actieplan (https://armoede vlaanderen be/?q=vlaams-actieplan) (2015) Inégalités entre élèves structurelles Fédération- Wallonie-Bruxelles L’apport l’enquête Eduquer 2015/ (n°114) 10-12 (Belgische Senaat Informatieverslag betreffende noodzakelijke samenwerking tussen federale overheid Gemeenschappen Gewesten inzake gezamenlijke aanpak strijd kinderarmoede ons land; Sénat Belge Rapport d’information concernant nécessaire l’autorité fédérale Communautés Régions vue développer une approche commune infantile notre Zitting 2015-2016/ Session doc 6-162/3) S Chr Decent Incomes Poor: Which Role Europe? Journal Common Market Studies Volume 55 pp 240–256; DOI: 1111/jcms 12486 Maes T Betaalt taxshift zichzelf terug? Leuvense Economische Standpunten 2018/168 Crépin Vécu attentes défavorisés belges ou d’origine étrangère l’égard structures pour petite enfance parole donnée aux précarité financée par Fondation Roi Impactberekening kinderbijslaghervorming op armoederisico KU Leuven januari M Bie jaar OCMW bijstand Leuven; Acco Kr (eds) (her)vormende Itinera -C juvénile rédigé Parlement Gordon D Najera Pomati “Towards deprivation” https://doi org/10 1007/s12187-017-9491-6 P Micro- Paper Net-SILC3 International Conference Comparative Athens April Lahaye Vranken I Rossem R (eds yearbook Sociale InZichten ACCO Leuven/ Hague allowances Wallonia: distributive https://www researchgate net/publication/316828914_THE_NEW_SYSTEM_ OF_FAMILY_ALLOWANCES_IN_WALLONIA_IMPACT_ON_POVERTY_ AND_DISTRIBUTIVE_EFFECTS C ‘nieuwe sociale kwestie 0’: hoe wonen armer maakt in: Coene Raeymaeckers Hubeau Goedemé Remmen Haarlem Uitsluiting Jaarboek Iets gelijker maar helaas niet beter Koning Boudewijnstichting Barometer Energiearmoede (2009-2015) (3de editie) Monseur Les scolaires ethno-culturelle amplification Quels apports données l’analyse Paris Conseil d’évaluation du système scolaire Lafontaine Structure systèmes éducatifs équité un éclairage international Crahay (Ed L’école peut-elle être juste efficace (2e éd revue avec collaborateurs augmentée 145-173) Boeck parcours âgés d’un champs d’action santé soutien parentalité l’accueil SA Dedicated Matthew use: preferences? Policy 25(6):878-893 Pacolet Buffel V Segaert Vanormelingen Coninck Wispelaere Op Beeck L Progress Recommendation “Investing (ESPN) Profile Unia L’enseignement Belgique reste inégalitaire selon l’origine ethnique Brussel: Hoog tijd om aan alarmbel te trekken Sampol: Samenleving politiek (December) 4-11 België Nederland: kleine welvaartsstaten Europa Vierendertigste Pacificatielezing Breda November 13140/ RG 14550 34888 armoede- verdelingsimpact nieuwe kinderbijslag: akkoord Regering mei 2016 CSB NL BG AT CZ PL DK PT DE RO EE SI IE SK EL FI ES SE FR IT CY Other (non-EU) LV IS LT RS LU CH HU MT Brederodestraat B-1000 info@kbs-frb +32-2-500 Donations euros give rise reduction actually IBAN: BE10 0000 0404 BIC: BPOTBEB1 Foundation’s mission change innovation serving interest cohesion seek maximize strengthening organizations stimulate philanthropy corporations values integrity transparency pluralism independence solidarity areas justice civic engagement talents democracy heritage 1976 occasion 25th anniversary Baudouin’s reign donors valued Subscribe e-news Follow PUB N°3617