The Design of a European Unemployment (Re)Insurance Scheme: Lessons from US Experience

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the amsterdam centre for european studies ssrn research paper 2019/06 design of a unemployment (re)insurance scheme: lessons from us experience christiaan luigjes georg fischer frank vandenbroucke this work is licensed under creative commons attribution 4 0 international license © luigjes* fischer** vandenbroucke*** 2019 *university email: c f luigjes@uva nl **vienna institute economic fischer@wiiw ac at *** universiteit i g vandenbroucke@uva www aces uva abstract american system insurance (ui) often cited as model potential re-insurance schemes while oversimplified comparisons are to be avoided there europe can learn federal- state relations regarding ui we distinguish three aspects system: first in 1930s federal government was able solve collective action problem that impeded development state-level programs; second during 1950s congress enacted backstop depleted trust funds used finance regular benefits; third 1970s added an extra layer based on intergovernmental co-financing benefits which intensifies crises and thus reinforces protection stabilization where when it most needed now exercise interest about buttressing national systems with supranational shows federal-state cooperation has overcome problems enhanced proved great importance recession effectively expand unemployed workers programs period high rising thereby contribute relevant way efforts obama administration however also some structural weaknesses view what might developed eu identify two risks level depending set-up federal-level financing lead retrenchment terms macroeconomic divergence between vulnerable these although may not its main current challenge simultaneously – other besetting insurmountable draw both positive cautionary lesson minimum requirements generosity coverage levels fundamental prerequisites any keywords: fiscal federalism introduction1 2012 report future monetary union (emu) presented by presidents council commission eurogroup central bank suggested create shock absorption mechanism: “an insurance-type euro area countries” one option mentioned capacity would act “complement or partial substitute systems” (van rompuy et al p 11) since then idea ‘european benefit scheme’ (eubs) particular emu-level ‘unemployment re- insurance’ garnering significant attention 2 her agenda commission’s president ursula von der leyen promises propose “european reinsurance scheme” (von 10) french german ministers le maire scholz agreed scheme july 2018 ecb draghi considered hearing parliament such important (draghi 2018; 2018) spd eu-election program explicitly calls fund reinsure (spd 2019) senior politicians3 including vice-chancellor refer besides social-democrats election manifesto greens cites need risk sharing counter policy makers who favor concept necessarily face hostile audience opinion public support cross-border hits member states but crucially depends features adequate incentives take up employment active 1 thank suzanne simonetta roel beetsma critical comments suggestions version working replaces 2019-version been released online too early accident see among others (2018) (2017a 2017b) carnot (2017) dolls beblavy lenaerts brandolini (2016) strauss dullien (2014) gros andor ragot (2019) 3 former party nahles explained: “we along lines financial power 27 must stand stabilize shocks prevent mass once situation improves will flow back ” https://europeangreens eu/priorities-2019-what-european-greens-fight#manifesto (vandenbroucke discuss concern shortcomings 5 1. caveats reference debates eurozone-level mechanism happenstance supports purchasing citizens downturn therefore automatic stabilizer par excellence existing unions either opt downright centralization (historically canada germany) they demand convergence organization provide really (like combines decentralization) rational behavior reasons pooling enhances resilience against asymmetric notion ‘asymmetric shocks’ should understood broadly here: symmetric origin play out very differently individual countries because conditions differ advantage argument stabilizers more particularly degree cross- border allows interregional smoothing 6 reason why applies completely across no value per se externality; country properly insures itself helps neighbors externality matter common all members organize effective fact have ingredients classical problem: increases labor costs without coordination competitive pressure militates sufficiently generous explained next section indeed response forum volume 52 (may/june 2017) intereconomics journal excellent account issues wandner relatively broad consensus order economically politically legitimate organizes intertemporal issue debt eurozone business cycles partly synchronized symmetric; combined cf de grauwe ji (2017); effectiveness emu whole cluster principles: sufficient rates market segmentation proliferation leave part force poorly insured unemployment; activation individuals implementation principles each ‘stability-supporting’ domestic our strongest arguments conversely stability-supporting become fortiori imperative organized: agree other’s if governments cannot guarantee their functions adequately words tabled here just enhance stability moreover quality policies intrinsically mutually related: condition self-evident further ado develop formal basis appendix various degrees –illustrated caveat concerns level: commitment authority lend induce retrench own generally diminish effort (or federal) aggregate states’ diminishes extent ‘retrenchment risk’ exact shape depend preferences attitudes leaders concerning shown linked first: case dynamic leads social rather than e ‘divergence reduction via commits (our caveat) unavoidable: supranational) sometimes ‘takes over’ less role even explicit purpose intervention and/or (rather convergence) backdrop ‘reduced stabilization’ takes form real examined consider 2. history outline united echoes genesis partnership wherein distinct responsibilities regulation circumstances autonomy operating governments’ primarily through extended follow analysis keep mind different teach europeans legislation provided show how final steps were protecting incomes times making substantial contribution economy regard move (creating benefits) subject related gradually emerged context notably lack ‘minimum requirements’ state’s created 1935 wake depression pursuing interlinked objectives objective offer wage replacement periods involuntary help maintain dispersal trained breakdown standards (price 1985 24) made sense feared interstate tax competition: concerned individually businesses relocate could had tread lightly closely guarded constitutional balance strong following comply those finances respective payroll complies rate reduced 90 percent mostly (to return detail 3) almost complete setting eligibility criteria normal required plays due introduced 1954 1970 ‘backstop’ example receive advance pay obligations advances repaid runs deficit consecutive years charge employers penalty-tax importantly law provides extension maximum duration given rises above certain threshold (we ‘triggers’ below) financed equally ad hoc emergency extensions possible contingent congressional approval fully federally (partially) follows logic complementary adds 7 anticyclical impact especially (dullien 2014 63) crisis laid bare (fischer 3. functioning basic stood test time well crucial factor longevity alter parameters same competition relevance ensures payment extending oversight increasingly emphasized necessity reemployment encouraged grants exchange best practices combination incremental adaptations continued interests recent exhibited building decades re-emerged resulted inadequate funding multiple solutions successful overcoming loosing predominantly taxes lobbied employer organizations lower cope revenues number tightened simply acquiesced near-insolvent 8 long-term perspective appear short-term electoral pressures myopic designed ways: illustrate alternative options impacts choices illustrated figures a3 a4 a5 corresponds qua figure a5; ‘incentive effect’ policy-makers better incentive effect models (although noted only imply permanently activated) does totally preclude possibility indicated earlier substitution intended solvency targets none binding elected legislators theory preempt levies requirement levy least permits reduce employers’ below ‘standard rate’ employer’s so practice actual applied exercising flexibility facto increasing measure today many low still retain credit 9 another essential taxable base (‘tax base’) equal set deemed race bottom adjusted indexed 1983 raised bases varying yet insufficient degrees) run deficits pressuring address insolvency calculated share ineffective lost over last triggers relies proven unreliable original (iur) measures jobs covered iur affected determine themselves became insensitive trends measured total (tur) (o’leary & pp 136-137) consequently downturns triggered barnow 2016 13-14) tighten manifold: (as above) do want respect paid (2019 145) emphasizes obligation maintaining shrinking determined grateful pointing half ideological aversion general apply restrictive recipiency stronger push local assume nevertheless profit improved neighboring attitudinal differences towards result developments increased after followed template resulting fairly homogeneous initially 44) utilized started diverge currently vary somewhat widely 10 finally before 1994 advisory compensation (acuc 1996) reluctant hit confronted 36 insolvent funds11 receiving place led despite did trigger took extraordinary (vroman woodbury 2014) proposed 100 50 adopt tur (actual unemployment) legislated additional 99 weeks accept ‘non-reduction rule’ (states rates) strongly jobless additionally available ‘modernization’ use expanding introducing short-term-work updating old it-systems reached historic 2011 2013) clearly paquier o’leary 11 partially severity lowest point (simonetta overcompensated newly tied expired january returned abandoned modernization retrenched eight exploited loophole non-reduction rule standard robust maintained kept systemic improvements contrast revoked organized utilize already solvent diversity present temporarily muted again post-crisis evolution 12 graph increase typically allowed usa manner specific 13 vroman discusses changes consequence factors results deep oecd temporary unique broader comparing immervoll richardson (2013) source: unsurprising tensions briefly revisited mixture myopia political oriented welfare (weaknesses legacy solution 1930s) stemming recently expense meant true presentation general: intrinsic minimize (section a5) 14 generate outcomes being schelkle (2017 chapters argues ambiguous effects shift cost rescues security congenial; illustrates whereby overall (aggregate) decreases free adjust fit recognizing outgoing 600 nationwide floor states15 host (dol 2016) 16 experts reforms urgently (for thorough proposals adopted 4. experience: inspiration examples tempting close analogy caution comparison origins distinct: encourage existed before; inception homogenous well-established predating method regulate capacity: enticed adhere quid pro quo 1) dollars 2) neither resources nor mandate process institutions decision-making approved agile difficult resistance single sovereign neigh impossible reach resolution system? relationship creation 15 limit discussion encouragement services mutual learning influx buoyed recessions strengthened income massively numbers bolstered (briefly discussed footnotes 14) fourth conditionality imposing interventions showed conditionality: optional stopped glass half-full half-empty limited emphasize conditional 17 massive require major change imagine equivalent taken architecture creates nature mean driver activated (perverse) weaker wage-cost competitiveness ideologically motivated dislike supporting likely constituted contributions obviously states; leeway perverse neutralized? historically rely five presidents: “completing europe`s union” discussions group budgetary instrument ensure potential; instead relied steadily diminished (which determines strength incentives) remained unchanged structure comprehensive architectural upward trend 1958 negatively affects compensated conclusion needs carefully ‘top-up’ (cf footnote 7) ‘accommodate’ suboptimal avoid pitfalls seems quite diverse starting reminder leadership offered advised define approach historical make lasting erosion inaction highly hence moments unsuitable new stricter difficulty pursue well- outset definition negotiation pan-european undoubtedly unduly pessimistic hand european-level government: observation underscores build initiative realm solid acquired extensive expertise hard soft benchmarking domain promotion pillar rights solemnly proclaimed november 2017 constitutes useful framework succession integrity long underlying erosion; otherwise long-run extremely implement happen manipulation instance linking gdp good direction short holds valuable blueprint policies: graphical simplified federation responsible taxation sheds light highlights (re-)insurance representation story told differs respects existence given; initial schemes; offers people complementing providing alternatively exactly impact) permanent: stylized (implicitly) depicted permanent whilst canadian belgian swiss system) actually works yields conceptual blocks understand multi-tiered types risk: associated whether basically characterized (i) (their duration) (ii) job search beneficiaries suitability (below summarize ‘job conditions’) (iii) finding improving skills capacities impediments a1 decision focus core parameter: lever (focusing highlight described body paper; intention picture graphs constructed simplification: average proportional to) authorities treated constants represented presupposes specified exogenous 18 horizontal axis rate: sum necessary activities; latter constant go ‘high’ ‘low’ vertical months person (going ‘short’ ‘long’) line sm ‘feasible set’ s (a maximal security); m collected means abstraction changing activity affect zero (hence it: extreme market-liberal policy) curve containing indifference policy-makers: indifferent combinations (they answer question: ‘how much you taxes?’) 19 curves (relative burden impose) flat; unemployed) steep choose feasible satisfaction policy- (at highest attained policies) optimal them somewhere simplicity always homothetic (i expansion paths linear); hold presenting smooth considerable simplification reality key dynamics polities funded addition consists fixed (paid federation) shifts vertically upwards dashed s’m’ a2 suppose distance s’ s’m’) independently principle display enjoy s’-s adapt (augmented) preferences: p’ (the difference s); federation’s decreasing replace reaction dotted ‘democratic’: values highly; dashed-and- ‘republican’: ‘democratic’ ‘republican’ points democratic higher republican state); react compare d d’ r r’ mainly let protection; improvement modest decreased considerably stringent patterns convergence; assumption everywhere (some observations reactions ‘modernization grants’ correspond theoretical analysis: ‘republican ‘democratic positions stops ) think bit harder ‘complementary extra-number transfer lump money states: allow strings attached (no ui) improve (but s’-s) (in spent money) 20 mix a3) yield ‘lump transfer’ level; replaced expanded sponsored ‘re-insurance’ severe note left decide ‘do’ (between states) initiative: type insurance: pure guarantees every whatever foresees guaranteed 25 a; b 35 argued similar state- politicians suffer availability softens budget constraints reducing relying deal benefits: gap normally shaped (from policy-makers’ view) p” corner solution: zero; collect a4) curves: remains box 22-23); conclude problematic variant intelligent month follows: dollar spends pays set: s’m choice (on s’m) reimburse ’50 reimbursement’ ‘conditional’ invested support: operates administrative let’s same; captures reimbursement ‘matching’) kind emphasis (given curves) compared depict homothetic) means: – l l’ (increased citizens); decrease ol (indicated arrow); t t’ (ol l; reduced) 21 ‘own effort’ organizational obtain little state’ ‘improved protection’ ‘less taxation’ remain excluded here) a1-a5 readily one? belgium (and organized) regions (largely) scenario full generates incentive; elsewhere labeled ‘institutional moral hazard’ sensitive sensitivity institutional hazard conceived materialize ways call supported ‘program a’; borne becomes state-financed unemployment-related (say b’) caseloads gives vigorous reemploying caseload influenced (e support) drawing crossing hands learned summarized obtains achieve direct technically achieved funds) directly upon limits possibilities (some) rapidly severely references acuc (1996) findings recommendations: 1994-1996 washington dc: jara h x sutherland designing 49(4) 184-203 k feasibility (https://www ceps eu/publications/feasibility-and-added- value-european-unemployment-benefits-scheme) carta d’amuri unemployment-based absorber 54(5) 1123–1141 n kizior mourre euro-area: simulation ceb 17/025 y boom busts governance barnard baere (ed (pp 160-191) cambridge: cambridge university press dol year 2017: justification training service department fuest neumann peichl area? alternatives using microdata 25(1) 273-309 question mep weizsäcker: ep committee http://www europarl europa eu/cmsdata/151460/monetary%20dialogue%2009 07 2018_ en pdf zone gütersloh: bertelsmann stiftung (2017a) reflection deepening 31 (com(2017) 291) (2017b) instruments stable within communication december 822 final) partnership: reflections iza 129 1-42 roadmap https://www economie gouv fr/files/files/pdf/2018/finances-euro_area_roadmap- redistribution ‘game changer’ working-age families? migration papers 150 america: europe? insights 23(june) 1-22 24 january) ist die antwort speech spd- fraktionsvorsitzenden andrea unemployment-benefit coverage: drivers outlook paris: j insurance? 20(1) 1-4 upjohn 16-264 price (1985) 1935-85 bulletin 48(10) 22-32 reform: evidence-based recommendations fixing broken 131-210) kalamazoo michigan: w civiliser capitalisme crise du libéralisme européen retour politique fayard solidarity understanding experiment oxford: oxford reform request 23-64) kommt zusammen und macht stark! wahlprogramm für europawahl am 26 mai debate appam conference inequalities: addressing growing policymakers worldwide london 13-14 june van barroso juncker (2012) genuine (december 2012) brussels hazard: vaccination metaphor 52(3) 154-159 burgoon kuhn nicoli sacchi duin hegewald hits: influences citizen (eurs) aissr wood lievens assistance (137) brussels: u my europe: guidelines 2019-2024 https://ec eu/commission/interim_en 103-130) 67(1) 253-268

The new European Commission must convince citizens that the Pillar is alive and kicking

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euvisions the new european commission must convince citizens pillar is alive and kicking by frank vandenbroucke i’m very grateful to all people – colleagues from academia policy-makers social political actors who contributed forum debate launched this brief conclusion should not be read as a real ‘conclusion’: it possible do justice contributions since many themes broached in would merit more thought nor will i try sketch agenda for rather than ‘concluding’ want explain mindset which together with maurizio ferrera my introduction wrote that solemn proclamation of marks point no return: some years now either convincing recognizable success or high-profile failure may become policy sustains momentum beyond lifetime juncker however if eu fails deliver on promise enshrined initiative backfire frustration generates undermine any attempt equip comprehensive dimension long time come given cost an eventual those us care about politics work interpretation maximizes its positive potential means among other things fit into consistent view role play policy: our perspective ‘european union’ also insisted we identify priority areas parliament council have take initiatives components union let me first recall identified five different ‘components’ brought constitute union’: national spaces transnational mobility space (supranational policies explicit purpose they regulative redistributive nature) fundamental principles call identifying priorities was one components: ‘eu policy’ proper sense supranational multidimensional understanding what ‘social europe’ important use andrew watt’s words claiming europe myth’ because ‘the paucity explicitly based misunderstanding: confuses multi-level entity eu-level narrow act issues when there value-added doing so sure interpret ‘added value’ merely economic material terms here: added value eu- level can increase legitimacy stressed his (i return below) resist temptation download whole onto institution: concern x relevant develop tackle differentiates approach instance trudie knijn’s contribution critical comment knijn writes implementing ‘must go far insurance union’; she mentions need spending public services concur her budgets increased member state resonates pillar’s but consider task states make invest sufficient resources at requires framework allows maintain fair adequate taxation systems welfare funded adequately (notably preventing race bottom corporate taxation); temporary support are hit severe shocks their funding whilst coping declining revenues unemployment benefits basically ‘insurance do; ‘insure’ capacity over responsibility themselves watt adds broader observation caveat eu: cannot separate economic’ social’ indeed inextricably intertwined potentially mutually reinforcing contributors graham room sacha garben others underscore insight each own way tackling interregional inequalities realizing upward convergence sustaining investment (…) large extent matter choices actor agenda-setter vladimir bogoeski’s same spirit bogoeski challenges belief ‘rights-based’ fundamentally: language rights lose battle against inequality notably between core periphery unequal development eu’s addressed long-term true across both ‘redistributive’ ‘pre-distributive policies’ (whereby he links chiara saraceno’s input debate); legitimate leads squarely domain regional policies? bea cantillon’s really takes up challenge priority’ roadmap delivering argues minimum income protection reinforce substance levers rehearse arguments like briefly contrast proposal set out developed enriched useful manos matsaganis repeat: suggested hard ‘holding environment’ whereby word ‘insurance’ understood broad organize mutual risk-sharing case collective action allow (a emphasized rightly waltraud shelkle various series) solidary countries within 20 mind intrinsically related notion access initially proposed ‘hard legislation’ guarantee citizens; second stage opted softer recommendation has been accepted next few needed regard principle suggest selecting ‘access all’ key e put top list first think stabilization merits through organization re-insurance scheme) then see does erode reason utmost including lack incapacity developments labour markets such proliferation independent ‘zzp’ statute netherlands platform economy undermining basic feature spill-overs intellectual confronted forms integrated security schemes unfair competitive pressure (perverse) process exchange learning states’ order better understand nature variety future scenarios solutions uniquely well equipped serve innovative unchartered domains prime example third bolstered citizenship linked every citizen always irrespective sector type activity employment relationship… persons whom depends engaged right’ individual yet confined exchanges high-level experts remaining ivory-tower exercise characterizing peer-review processes too often inform definition enjoyed here benefit matsaganis’ enriches argument linking ‘future work’: ‘[t]he never stronger experimentation best practices’ risk simplifying distinction taken say former focuses specific outcomes achieved latter ‘nuts bolts’ future-proof obviously overlap two wants reconsider importance universal instruments fight poverty give another emphasis nuts bolts states: developing obliges transparent system wages coverage much narrative these respective pronounce final judgment here; approaches cantillon advances (and tables additional cautionary reducing ) emphasize exactly kind determination implementation everything simultaneously: energy capital inevitably limited hence synergy insistence selection detract contribution: delivery presupposes combined implement principles: legislation; coordination benchmarking; substantial semester fiscal macroeconomic surveillance francesco costamagna draw attention highlight mainstream inspiration semester’s recommendations insurmountable contradiction warning artificial opposition social’: austerity presumably were sound ‘stabilisation’ (to costamagna’s terminology) aftermath financial crisis over-emphasis consolidation simply ill-guided policy; definitely well-organized stabilisation making legal greater weight considerations helpful respect observatory (ose) recently published report workers’ group committee commission’s multiannual financial scrutinized (sabato et al 2019) table battery operational budgetary proposals translate refer reader authors reform programme instrument vehicle promote fact mff undergo check’ less convinced suggestion ose introduce imbalances procedure’ main focus corti stefano sabato bart vanhercke adding soft procedure already complicated procedures relatively little per se believe crux provide tangible reforms guided objectives coherent solidarity further (which politically!) allocating context setting ‘social’ militate necessary integration wrong functionalist fallacy martin heidenreich insists ‘functional arguments’ poor basis warns ‘functionalist fallacy’ proposes highly original alternative account idea ‘exit’ options seem foreclosed cautions approach: risks completion emu might blind east-west divide remarks touch upon complex analytical normative problems struggle indicated initial agree stretch functional elsewhere argued thinking bridge shared aspirations ferrera’s search avoid functionalism arguing hand constraints face carry cutting short somewhere said summary thoughts inspired entail deliberately ‘improved citizens’ accessible understandable citizens: applying wages… interesting suggestion: joint ‘just transition’ climate underscores yes promising waiting admittedly pragmatic worry last months continuity: continuity general require effective especially institutions credibility nothing worse impression ‘cheap talk’ quickly forgotten side-remark laszlo andor complains higher profile follow-up 2013 package; mere package barroso probably reduced motivation keep prominently radar pity happen again under formed ursula von der leyen’s presented get respect: only announces full ‘action plan’ being clear-headed ways thus mobilization therefore end note: feed high- neatly organized plan skeptical references: s f b spasova (2019) integrating deepening europe’s monetary brussels:

The EU and social policy

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The EU and social policy Frank Vandenbroucke University of Amsterdam Summer School KULeuven 12 July 2019 Inequality in Europe the USA compared US 1 4 EU27 3 2 0 9 8 7 6 5 Median income states (US ‘representative state’ = 1) Member States (EU MS’ European distribution: a moving scale Romania Denmark Top quintile 25% =>36% 123% =>125% 23% => 35% 132% =>132% 21% =>33% 139% =>136% 17% 28% 144% diversity welfare Input: expenditure on protection gross % GDP (2016) 35 30 25 20 15 10 FR FI DK AT BE SE IT NL GE GR UK PT ES SI LU CR PL CY HU CZ SK BG EE MT IE LT LV RO old age & survivors Sickness/Health Care Unemployment Disability Family/children Housing Social Inclusion n e c Other adm costs Output: two-dimensional map 24 22 18 16 14 44 49 54 59 64 69 Employment Rates 2016 (population 15-74) states: poverty Poverty risk threshold: “national” conception (SILC 2017) 000 AROP total population SILC 2017 threshold PPP performance dimension project according to founding fathers: belief convergence • integration would support simultaneous pursuit economic progress cohesion both within countries (through gradual development states) between upward across Union) Initial division labour: – development: supranational coordination security rights anti-discrimination: national sovereignty (in theory) machine worked… more or less… until 2004/2008 A tragic dilemma enlarged heterogeneous EU? Monthly minimum wages: disparity but East-West 500 2004 Reconciling openness domestic cohesion: political challenge Openness mobility must not exert downward pressure level (minimum wages entitlements assistance) Access benefits: general principle non-discrimination exception: posting workers We do see ‘benefit tourism’ Posting needed reform Transparency coverage wage regimes Minimum what governments can do: net disposable couple with children one minimum-wage earner 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 DE EL Net Gross Source: CSB/MIPI risks < 60 by work intensity household 70 50 40 Very high High Medium Low low Work 2004-06 Bron: Eurostat 2005-2007; year T refers observation T-1 except for Increasing inequality poverty: diagnosis lessons There is no one-size-fits-all explanation hence silver bullet tackle increasing inequalities need set complementary strategies instruments that improve employment perspectives households weak attachment labour market Improving our human capital requires child-centred investment strategy addresses opportunities should promote policies (Vandenbroucke Rinaldi) Division EU)? Design flaws EMU as an insurance union: vaccination metaphor Why are stabilization centralized monetary unions? Risk sharing (pooling) Externalities public good (vaccination) Vaccination: compulsory requirements) subsidized (re-insurance) requirements effective stabilisation capacity: sufficiently generous unemployment benefits notably short-term; sufficient rates benefit schemes; segmentation leaves part force poorly insured; proliferation relations integrated into insurance; activation unemployed individuals; budgetary buffers times so automatic stabilisers their bad These principles become fortiori imperative if Eurozone be equipped re-insurance systems: institutional moral hazard EMU: needs common standards resilient shared flexibility Labour institutions deliver (effective collective bargaining) Cluster adequate capacity MS: insured against unemployment; systems individuals  Convergence some key features Pillar Rights Gothenburg Summit 17 November How Rights? Clear priorities Credible roadmap combining… legislation Policy benchmarking Funding (tangible MS) Mainstreaming fiscal surveillance Semester Completing union Union systemic functions (e g fair corporate taxation …) guide substantive via objectives leaving ways means basis operational definition ‘the model’ cooperate explicit purpose pursuing pan-European based reciprocity Resources (1) Addressing Global Inequality: Is Part Equation? in: Diamond (ed) Crisis Globalization: Democracy Capitalism Twenty-First Century I B Tauris London New York pp 235-258 (download www frankvandenbroucke uva nl) 2) puzzles paradoxes Boone Marc; Deneckere Gita Tollebeek Jo (eds ) End Postwar Future - Essays Ian Buruma Verhandelingen van de KVAB voor Wetenschappen en Kunsten Nieuwe reeks 31 Uitgeverij Peeters 2017; download nl 3) Rinaldi In: Vision Consortium ): Redesigning Ways forward Gütersloh http://www vision-europe-summit eu/ (2) 4) cross-border Sticking may yield better practical results everybody Tribune Notre Institut Jacques Delors June 5) Barnard De Baere after Cambridge: Cambridge Press September https://doi org/10 1017/9781108235174 (Introductory chapter Open item 263) 6) Commission Recommendation COM(2017) 2600 final 7) Rights: from promise delivery –Introduction ‘European (ESU) forum debate’ EuroVisions December 2018 + other contributions this debate: euvisions frankvandenbroucke_uva

Domestic social cohesion and cross-border mobility: a tragic dilemma?

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Domestic social cohesion and cross-border mobility: a tragic dilemma? Summer Course College of Europe 3 July 2019 Frank Vandenbroucke University Amsterdam www frankvandenbroucke uva nl • Historical perspective Mobility migration: facts on labour mobility Intra-EU principles policies EU integration the national welfare states The European Pillar Social Rights dimension project according to founding fathers: belief in convergence would support simultaneous pursuit economic progress both within countries (through gradual development states) between upward across Union) Initial division labour: – development: supranational coordination security rights & anti-discrimination: sovereignty (in theory) machine worked… more or less… until 2004/2008 Source: Lefebvre Pestieau A dilemma enlarged heterogeneous EU? US 1 4 EU27 2 0 9 8 7 6 5 Median income (US ‘representative state’ = 1) Member States (EU MS’ Romania Denmark Top quintile 32% 133% 30% 140% 28% 145% 23% 152% 500 000 BG RO LV LT SK EE PL HU CZ PT SI ES MT GR UK IE BE FR NL LU GE CR 2004 PPP We must distinguish: internal external debate framed ‘rights’ ‘consequences’: fairness terms consequences for sending receiving economically active non-active short-term long-term impacts individual as whole migration 90 80 70 60 50 40 EU28 30 20 10 Native-born EU-15 EU-10 EU-3 TCN Netherlands Italy Belgium How can we justify free movement? 2) non-discriminatory access benefits those who move? 3) difference citizens application (1) (2) sense ‘earned’ citizenship? movement non-discrimination (for workers)? citizenship ↄ formal equality employment opportunities An integrated market services needs ‘posting’ ‘free workers’ be fair Non-discrimination justifies sustains principle that do not tolerate competition different systems one territory I argue two complementary logics apply legitimately with regard if they are applied conjointly: Economically have right take up borders basis ‘earn’ all State where work including protection against involuntary inactivity (unemployment illness) citizen cannot simply rely any his (or her) choice: nationality determines which is first foremost responsible Under carefully delineated conditions another he has no bond allowed say citizen’s create an ‘unreasonable burden’ its state (these substantiate absence real link host was exercised solely order benefit from state’s assistance) In contrast it ‘unreasonable’ provide adequate whatever causes their vulnerability dependence Fair rights) ‘balancing act’ implies coherent regulatory agenda: Enforcement Posting exception ‘normal rule’ Transparency coverage minimum wage Industrial relations trade union action (Viking Laval) Directive measures facilitate exercise conferred workers context freedom (Directive 2014/54) Seasonal Workers’ (2014/36) Intra-Corporate Transferees (2014/66) Professional Qualifications (2013/55) Posting: (2014); Revision (2018) Labour Authority “posted worker” employee sent by employer carry out service temporary contract intra-group posting hiring through agency example provider may win country send employees there contract) Posted mobile remain only temporarily integrate go seek employed entitled equal treatment nationals working other tax ) Even though posted still company subject law set core force rates pay; maximum periods rest periods; paid annual leave; agencies; health safety hygiene at work; men women However does whenever applicable worker accordance rules favourable than result 2014 adopted aim strengthen practical addressing issues related fraud circumvention inspections monitoring joint liability subcontracting chains exchange information June 2018 revision Workers adopted; main changes: mandatory elements remuneration (instead “minimum pay”); accommodation allowances reimbursement expenses during assignment; postings (longer 12 18 months) extended transposed into laws 2020 Road transport: ‘Lex Specialis’ Council position: December EP April 2019: Clear drivers’ pay times Three-day limit cabotage operations Fewer but better controls roadside checks Adopted 13 2019; tasks: improving employers obligations cases coordination; supporting member enforcement relevant Union facilitating concerted inspections; cooperation tackling undeclared assisting authorities resolving disputes; without prejudice competences Administrative Commission Coordination Security Systems ELA will enhance violations exploitation able report them cooperate concerned It also carrying-out tackle irregularities These place either request agree ELA’s suggestion Follow-up taken level requires Fairness consequences): long- term common interest ‘brain overflow’ rather waste’ Valorisation human capital hindered segmented markets intergenerational inadequate education training institutions Minimum wages what governments do: net disposable couple children minimum-wage earner 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 AT FI DE DK IT EL Net Gross CSB/MIPI household Very high intensity High Medium Low low Work 2004-06 2016 Bron: Eurostat SILC 2005-2007; 2017 year T refers observation T-1 except Division policy EU)? Design flaws Why stabilization instruments centralized monetary unions? Risk sharing (pooling) Externalities public good (vaccination) Vaccination: compulsory (minimum requirements) subsidized (re-insurance) requirements effective stabilisation capacity: sufficiently generous unemployment notably short-term; sufficient schemes; segmentation leaves part poorly insured; proliferation insurance; activation unemployed individuals; budgetary buffers so automatic stabilisers bad become fortiori imperative Eurozone equipped re-insurance insurance systems: institutional moral hazard shared conception flexibility deliver (effective collective bargaining) Cluster capacity MS: insured unemployment; individuals  Convergence some key features Gothenburg Summit 17 November priorities Credible roadmap combining… legislation Policy benchmarking Funding (tangible MS) Mainstreaming fiscal surveillance Semester Completing EMU systemic functions (e g corporate taxation …) guide substantive via general standards objectives leaving ways means operational definition ‘the model’ explicit purpose pursuing pan-European based reciprocity Resources: see Outline References presentation Addressing Global Inequality: Is Part Equation? in: Diamond (ed) Crisis Globalization: Democracy Capitalism Inequality Twenty-First Century B Tauris London New York pp 235-258 (download nl) L’État-Providence en Performance et dumping Cepremap Éditions Rue d’Ulm 2012 ESDE ‘Mobility EU: Opportunities challenges’ Chapter II Employment Developments 2015 4) union: puzzles paradoxes perspectives Boone Marc; Deneckere Gita Tollebeek Jo (eds End Postwar Future – Essays Ian Buruma Verhandelingen van de KVAB voor Wetenschappen Kunsten Nieuwe reeks 31 Uitgeverij Peeters 2017; download 5) Rinaldi inequalities challenge In: Vision Consortium ): Redesigning Ways forward Gütersloh (http://www vision-europe-summit eu/) 6) Sticking yield results everybody Tribune Notre Institut Jacques Delors 7) Barnard De Baere after Cambridge: Cambridge Press September https://doi org/10 1017/9781108235174 (Introductory chapter Open Access item 263) 8) Recommendation COM(2017) 2600 final 9) Rights: promise delivery –Introduction ‘European (ESU) forum debate’ EuroVisions + contributions this debate: http://www euvisions eu/ frankvandenbroucke_uva

Table-ronde sur le socle européen des droits sociaux

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Table-ronde sur le socle européen des droits sociaux Commission affaires européennes Assemblée Nationale Intervention de Frank Vandenbroucke Université d’Amsterdam Le (SEDS) Pourrait marquer un tournant dans développement la dimension sociale du projet Mais présente aussi risque: proclamation solennelle SEDS doit être traduite en mesures concrètes sous peine d’amplifier frustration à l’égard Il faut une feuille route avec priorités bien définies 3 domaines clés: – Promouvoir convergence ascendante les normes et performances sociales Garantir mobilité équitable citoyens Investir capital humain utiliser tous instruments dont dispose l’UE: législation coordination politiques l’emploi (Semestre européen) soutien financier (rôle Fonds d’autres financiers) Convergence Une nécessité pour bon fonctionnement l’union monétaire: flexibilité + stabilité assurance chômage suffisamment généreuse taux couverture adéquats ; pas segmentation marché travail notamment limitant prolifération relations qui ne sont intégrées systèmes protection activation effective chômeurs; … salaires négociation collective coordonnée unique Mobilité Autorité européenne Salaires minimum Perspective: ‘Union Sociale européenne’ analyse claire rôle que jouer l’UE domaine Union ≠ État-providence soutiendrait États-providence nationaux au niveau systémique certaines leurs fonctions clés (stabilité via mécanismes réassurance limites concurrence fiscale …) orienterait substantiel définissant objectifs généraux tandis qu’elle laisserait aux Etats membres responsabilité mise œuvre politique s’appuyant définition opérationnelle ‘Modèle social européen’ Réassurance européen: public formules sélectionnées cohérentes France 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Formule 1 2 4 Part répondants favorables sans compter neutres comptant toutes réponses SEUIL BAS ÉLEVÉ & AUCUNE REDISTRIBUTION 5 NATIONALE 6 ET ENTRE PAYS Références Fernandes « Europe : slogan réalité » in Thierry Chopin Michel Foucher (dir ) Rapport Schuman l’Europe L’état l’Union 2018 Lignes repères The European Pillar of Social Rights: from promise to delivery –Introduction the ‘European (ESU) forum debate’ EuroVisions December Nicoli ce qu’en pensent vraiment Notre Institut Jacques Delors Décryptage ‘Europe tous’ 13 février 2019 Barnard De Baere (eds A after Crisis Cambridge: Cambridge University Press September 2017 Politique union puzzles paradoxes perspectives Revue Belge Sécurité 58 (1/2016) pp 7-38 Ragot Civiliser Capitalisme Crise libéralisme retour Fayard www frankvandenbroucke uva nl

Eindeloopbaan: aandachtspunten voor het federale en Vlaamse beleid

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Eindeloopbaan: aandachtspunten voor het federale en Vlaamse beleid In deze bijdrage ligt de klemtoon op Aange- zien dit themanummer van Over Werk zich richt tot overheid kan verbazen Voor is ech- ter cruciaal te weten hoe eindeloopbaanbeleid ontwikkelt Vanzelfsprekend heeft geen be- voegdheden inzake pensioenen; met uitzondering aspect ‘activering’ (en specifieke kwesties zoals kwaliteit out- placement) zij ook bevoegdheden over uit- tredestelsels die toelaten dat mensen reeds hun pensione- ring arbeidsmarkt verlaten Toch pleit ik een bijzondere aandacht ontwikkelingen terrein om verschillende redenen De eerste reden beleidsimpul- sen voorbije vijftien jaar rol speelden in stelselma- tige stijging werkzaamheid ouderen Vlaanderen stand gekomen zijn niveau tweede pensioenbeleid impasse terechtgeko- men daardoor kruispunt staat: vraag welke weg ingeslagen wordt uit geraken belangrijk derde moet anticiperen koers zal volgen kort toelichten basis gunstige dus optimistische) hypothese richting zou kunnen inslaan & Van Steenkiste 2018a) Ver- schillende factoren – niet alleen verklaren waarom tredeleeftijd toeneemt Vlaande- ren België meeste Europese landen Maar speelde toch rol: relatief sterkere toe- name uittredeleeftijd bij vrouwen periode (2001-2011) mee verklaard worden doordat officiële pensi- oenleeftijd 2009 geleidelijk werd opgetrokken pensioenleeftijd mannen (65 jaar) uittredeleef- tijd gesproken sterker mannen; hangt sa- verstrenging leeftijds- loopbaanvoorwaar- den recht vervroegd pensioen regering Di Rupo doorvoerde 1 Daarnaast beslissing Vlaam- se Regering voorwaarden opname terbe- schikkingstelling voorafgaand aan (TBSVP) koppe- len datum waarop iemand kon gaan Wellicht droeg verstren- ging toetredingsvoorwaar- stelsel werkloos- Impact Sinds 2000 stijgt leeftijd Vlaan- deren treden gestadig (Scholiers heid bedrijfstoeslag (SWT) verhoging Dit toetredingsvoorwaarden pen- sioen verdergezet door Michel alhoewel meest besproken maatregel laatste verhogen wettelijke 66 2025 67 2030 tijdens komende legislatuur nog enkel effect hebben beloofde pil ver- hogen verzachten uitzonderingen creëren zogenaamde ‘zware beroepen’ sociale partners slaagden er akkoord vinden wat zware beroepen Minister Pensioenen sloot deel vakbonden overheidspersoneel regeling openbaar ambt (om ge- plande afschaffing ‘preferenti- ele tantièmes’ ambtenarenpensioen deels compenseren) raakte geblokkeerd menings- verschillen schaduw bijzonder gevoelige kwestie boven hele pensioenbeleid; volgende slechts nieuwe werven pensioen- ein- deloopbaanbeleid beginnen wanneer opgelost noodzaak flexibel pensioenstelsel Een uitweg mogelijk indien consistente keuze maakt wil zeggen waarin ruime keuzevrijheid bestaat betrek- king moment zo georgani- seerd ze zowel billijk als financieel duurzaam krijgt dan minder dramatisch karakter Commissie Pensioenhervorming 2020-2040 (CPH) gaf 2015 rege- advies flexibiliteit pensioenstel- sel Ze stelde flexi- biliteit Belgische verder diepen consistent maken (Commissie 2015) Onze idee was lengte loopbaan spil vormen doorslaggevend opnemen We bepleitten grote konden maar we stelden vervroegde sionering ‘negatieve actuariële correcties’ ingevoerd zouden Dergelijke correcties bestaan (meer) België; ons land daarin zeer uitzon- derlijk Actuariële zorgen ervoor (verwachte) totale som pensioenuitkeringen krijgen (verwacht) overlij- statistisch beïnvloed Bijzonder voorstel negatieve gebaseerd CPH uitdrukkelijk lagere voeren Inzake pleitten iedereen toegankelijke gelijke vereiste loopb- aanduur Wel aparte berekening pensioenhoogte: sneller opbouwen anderen hen oen ten dele compenseren eerder marginaal moest blijven procedure volledig verantwoor- delijk selectie dergelijke binnen beperkte gesloten budgettaire enveloppe Laat me concreet voorbeeld geven techniek leggen Neem begon werken 18de (een weinig geschoold ie- mand) daarnaast pas toen hij 22 hooggeschoold iemand) bijvoorbeeld vanaf 63 zonder enige correctie (zijn omvat 45 jaar; laat waarrond of positieve optreden) hooggeschoolde wel Nog anders gezegd: laaggeschoolden begonnen ‘normale’ hooggeschoolden 22ste ‘norma- le’ Wie stopt haar ‘normale pensioenleeftijd’ gepenaliseerd diegene 18 wachten 63ste verjaardag vooraleer kan: (geheel gedeeltelijk) opneemt facto gaat cor- rectie toela- vrij combineren betaalde arbeid moeten voldoende krachtig Indien zwak zullen veel slecht uitdraaien betaalbaarheid systeem Opdat sterke pensioencorrecties teerbaar je gemakkelijk lang volhoudt rekenregels hoogte bepalen iets gunstiger Dat nadelige correc- ties kun- nen neutraliseren Hoelang cruciale essentie afweging tussen mate soepel ener- zijds gemiddelde pensioenen anderzijds Als loopbaan- voorwaarde soepelheid leidt praktijk gemiddeld kortere loopbanen norm goede pensioe- leiden loopbaanvoorwaarde loop- baan dichter buurt maatschappelijke versterkt getrapt Men onderscheid loopbaanduur toegang geeft gedeeltelijk ‘deel- tijds pensioen’ langere waarna op- genomen daar ver deeltijds moge- lijk enkele jaren ‘volledig’ termijn plaats komen uittredestelsels nu Afhankelijk formules deel- huidige (zie Cockx Dejemeppe Vanderlinden 2017) ‘deeltijdse pensionering’ ontwikkelen veronderstelt echter peil vol- doende goed is: gedeelte opgenomen komt bena- dering immers korting (voor gedeelte) blijft einde leven breed vervroegingsformules risico lage waar vandaag rust lager Betere veron- derstellen samenleving bereid financieren; omwille evenwicht generaties vereist bereidheid gemiddel- langer Daarmee cirkel rond: uitdaging organiseren verbeteren Zoals gezegd benadering radicale variant inhou- helemaal minimale meer (alléén telt) lijkt standig: uiteindelijk mijns inziens best combinaties duur leeftijd- loopbaanvoorwaarden soe- peler lijnen inspiratie pleidooi volgd: speelt mogelijkheid wilde horen Sterker bestaande slimme wie doorwerkt zogenoemde pensioenbonus afgeschaft Om leidspiste bepleit duidelijk nodig dieper inga discussie Goede praktijk: Tot 2014 kregen gebruik maakten doorwerkten strikt geno- elke dag doorwerk- kleine bonus nam vorm forfait extra interessant men- gold gelijkgestelde periodes SWT (brugpensioen) werkloosheid: effectief Concreet 65 40 had één nadat gaan; hing net samen Met andere woorden: Jan Piet even oud waren bo- nus opbouwde terwijl (omdat Jans vroeger gestart was) Het bouwde ouder Piet) Doordat toegevoegd sioenbedrag doorbrak (relatief lage) berekeningsplafonds gelden werknemers zelfstandigen pensioenbo- hield evenmin rekening principe ‘eenheid loopbaan’ werknemers- zelfstandigenstelsel ander betekende aanmoedigde onaf- hankelijk bijkomende pe- riode effectieve tewerkstelling verdiende; koos doorwerken beloond paste dynamische actief blij- ven functies carrière gemaakt argument waarmee uitlegde sterk ef- fect verlengen juist mogen verrassen Aangezien invoering inhield invoe- a priori twee effecten uittredegedrag verwachten degenen werk loopbaan: enerzijds prikkel uittrede stellen (het ‘substitutie-effect’: opportuniteitskost ter- ‘verloren groter) ander- vervroegen ‘inkomenseffect’: opbouwt Veronderstel bestaand budget (zonder bedrag) invoeren pensioenleeftijd) malus wette- lijke dergelijk scenario zijn: inkomenseffect substitutie-effect dezelfde Achteraf bekeken oenbonus vooral efficiënte manier oenen verhogen: verbetert reeks negatief feitelijke krijg licht po- sitief Anders aanzien verbeterde pensioenbedrag ontstaat gecombineerde bonus/malus verbetering evo- lueert dynamisch ontstaan Veron- derstel leeftijdsvoorwaarden toekomst strenger worden; vergroot globale ‘substitutie-effect’ spelen beduidend werknemer loon na vier eer- der (op 61 41 hoogde circa 2 5% gelijkaardige werkte laag verhoogde (Com- missie tabel 4-B pp 19-20) Deze weegt absoluut tegen winst boeken zette stap terug voor- naar logischer resultaat echt duurzame qua Nochtans ‘deeltijds Principieel uitstekende stel- brengen verkiezingen parlement goedge- keurd beantwoordt opvatting genieten wer- kende voldoen tewerk- gesteld geweest belope 80% voltijdse betrekking gedurende twaalf kalendermaanden voorafgaan aanvraag Hij bovendien beroepsactiviteit zodanig verminderen hoger 50% administratieve bepalingen vereisen specifiek controleapparaat; houden ze- kere onrechtvaardigheid werkten verdienen (50% levert ene andere) zinvolle aangevoerd al onderlijnt evenwel beter herinvoering (fors versterkte) toe bijdragen dubbelslag tekenen pensioenbeleid: verbe- teren correcte incentives mits verdere modulering allereerste prioriteit eerst berekenen impact fors versterkte pensioenbonus: laagste toekomstige begrotingen bonusformule deeltijdse omkaderen Vervolgens onderzocht verbeteringen ni- veau haalbaar alle duidelijkheid ben getrouwd precieze formule vroegere pensioenbonus; essen- tie logisch baangevoelige pensioenvervroeging ontmoedigen uitstel aanmoedigen Zo kun vrijheid Parallelle uitdagingen Vlaams Gezien situatie belang federaal sioenstelsel flexibi- liteit verlenging hand Mensen natuurlijk doel zich: wel- actieve fase Werknemers tevreden gepensioneerden inkomen schikken houdbaar vertrouwen inboezemt elementen bre- verdelings- welzijnsvraagstuk via beleidssporen wijze bredere welzijnsoverwegingen spoor betreft levenslang leren gerichte activering vierde steunt selectieve bijdrageverminderingen werkgevers tewerkstellen Ik con- centreer onderzoek et (2017) kritische vragen bijdrage- verminderingen voorstander kritisch voorzag jongeren resultaten medeauteurs doen nieuw nadenken Zij vast 2002 georganiseerd werden positief hadden tenzij sectoren brugpensioen zelfs stond tegenover diegenen on- leeftijdsgrens vielen onderliggende analyse inte- ressant werpt gevolgen volgt ga hypo- these kiest inbegrip bekijk alsnog hypothetische ervan brugpensionering toelaat oudere ontslaan kostelijk werkgever werk- gevers beschikken dienst vaak vergelijking toegevoegde waarde zelf leveren bedrijf Precies daarom gunstig deelgroep goedkope ont- slagen groot verschil pensioen: afdanking vrijwillige hem verplichten Deeltijds consequenties (vandaag SWT) omdat meetelt latere nemen onder zekere druk precies ogen productief gezorgd werkge- vers ‘dumpen’ gebeuren bijdragevermindering uitsluitend toegespitst leeftijdsgroep (deeltijds) zinvol stelt baten opwegen kosten (Cockx daarover optimistisch) oog samenhang beleidsagenda dringend vergt 3 aanbodzijde pre- ferenties terugbrengt thema ‘kwaliteit werk’ ontbreekt controle eigen zelfsturing autonomie belang- rijk beleidsinitiatieven verleden innovatie arbeidsorganisa- agenda (zoals Flanders Sy- nergy) opnieuw stof gehaald Wat wetenschappelijk internationaal derzoek welzijn betekenis werkne- mers zaak maximaal va- loriseren vullen beleidsuitdagingen Ten gronde breder louter vermijden wig loonkost produc- tiviteit voortijdige uitstoot arbeidsproces volgens schets- kansen biedt ervaren slag willen Zowel belangrijke hefbomen handen ontwikkeling stimuleren Frank Vandenbroucke Universiteit Amsterdam Noten 1. besluiten econometrisch verho- Scholiers Vansteenkiste ontleent overtuigingskracht snelheden toenam 2012 2. context vind evident zeker middengeschoolde 2015a 2015b) cijfers (2018b) sterken overtuiging zeg- gen acties laaggeschool- situeren domein bege- leiding opleiding eventueel aangevuld lastenvermindering kwetsbare doel- groep (maar jongeren) 3. Verloning anciënniteit onderzoekers tegenstrijdige signalen rond Bibliografie B M Linden België: werkt beleid? Tijdschrift Steunpunt 27(1) 99- 107 Leuven: / Uitgeverij Acco (2014) betrouwbaar sociaal contract Voorstellen structurele hervorming pensioenstelsels Brussel juni (2015) Zwa- re eerlijke pensioensysteem Aanvullend Com- april S (2018a) Uittredeleeftijd neemt versneld kaap zicht (Werk Focus 2018 nr 14) Leu- ven: Doelgroepen werk? blik arbeidsmarktpositie doelgroepen Doelgroepenbeleid 28(1) 19-26 F (2015a) arbeids- markt verspilt zwakste betaalt Morgen 4 februari p 24 (2015b) impulsen helpen Tijd 13 november

Wat beweegt de Europese burger?

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Wat beweegt de Europese burger? Een onderzoek naar het draagvlak voor sociaaleconomische solidariteit Collegereeks Europa ProDemos Frank Vandenbroucke Universiteit van Amsterdam Den Haag, 17 juni 2019 • De founding fathers geloofden in opwaartse convergentie – Economisch beleid: Europees Sociaal nationaal Coördinatie sociale zekerheidsrechten: non-discriminatie Deze optimistische hypothese klopt niet meer sinds midden jaren 2000: groeiende ongelijkheid binnen en tussen lidstaten Oorzaken? tragisch dilemma? Verlies aan beleidsvermogen: een muntunie zonder schokdempers EMU: stabiliteit, soevereiniteit Muntunies organiseren risicospreiding, met oog op stabiliteit: EMU als ‘verzekeringsunie’: ‘schokfonds’ om landen moeilijkheden tijdelijk te helpen? Herverzekering nationale werkloosheidsverzekering? Paradox: VSA consolideren zwakke solidariteitsmechanismen staten federale niveau; EU lukt er sterke ondersteunen niveau. Vertrouwen instellingen Wantrouwen t.a.v. huidige politieke leiders Is lidmaatschap goede zaak Peiling bij 19.500 Europeanen 13 landen; uitgangspunten: 1) lidstaat ontvangt steun wanneer ze geconfronteerd wordt aanzienlijke stijging werkloosheid. 2) gebruikt werkloosheidsuitkeringen subsidiëren. 3) gemeenschappelijk minimumniveau (een bodem) alle lidstaten. Varianten: Generositeit (3 varianten) Vorming opleiding werklozen (2 Herverdeling 4) Belastingen 5) Uitvoering 6) Inspanningen werk zoeken 324 formules 60% Gemiddelde die mensen zien krijgen 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 90% 80% 70% Formule 1 2 3 4 Voorstanders verhouding tot voor- tegenstanders (‘neutralen’ meegeteld) hele groep Laag minimum (40% laatste loon), geen bijkomende belastingen Hoog (70% omhoog 0,5% inkomen iedereen minimum, herverdeling land (alleen rijkere inwoners betalen extra belasting) (belasting alleen rijken) Alle ontwerpen: moeten onderwijs aanbieden, uitvoering door zelf, passende baan aanvaarden of verliezen uitkering Fundamentele oppositie tegen risicodeling is beperkt klein segment bevolking. concrete modaliteiten zijn belangrijk: onze respondenten geven over algemeen voorkeur genereus zijn, vereisen dat deelnemende onderwijs- opleidingskansen aanbieden werklozen, leiden belastingverhoging, voorwaarden koppelen werkloosheidsuitkering. Genereuze kunnen vinden meerderheid we onderzochten, zelfs indien voorstel zou verhoging belastingen. In sommige moet eventuele belasting (indien zijn) gepaard gaan rijke armere opdat voldoende verwerven. meeste groter gedecentraliseerd wordt: men opteert best herverzekering uitkeringsstelsels ondersteunt budgettaire transfers. Discussie beleidsmakers bezig houdt, nl. vraag hoeveel ruimte mag structurele middelen landen, lijkt minder belangrijk. Andere kwesties zoals hoe opleiding, activering uitkeringen gekoppeld worden leggen gewicht schaal grote publiek. Vandenbroucke, Burgoon, Kuhn, Nicoli, Sacchi, der Duin & Hegewald, Grensoverschrijdende werkloosheid stijgt: invloed alternatieve beleidsontwerpen houding burgers ten aanzien europese inzake , AISSR Policy Report 1, 11.12.2018. Er solidariteit, S&D Jg. 76 Nr. Februari 2019, pp. 34-42. beleid muntunie: puzzels, paradoxen perspectieven, Belgisch Tijdschrift Sociale Zekerheid, 58 (1/2016), 5-35. perspectieven-3/ Coene, Armoedebestrijding Unie, in: Raeymaeckers, Hubeau, Goedemé, Remmen Van Haarlem (red.) Armoede uitsluiting, Jaarboek 2018, Leuven/Den Haag: Acco, 75-104. %20en%20Sociale%20Uitsluiting%202018_binnenwerk_WEB_16-11-2018.pdf

Six conditions pour une bonne gouvernance des pensions

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Six conditions pour une bonne gouvernance des pensions Ce document reflète l’avis unanime, obtenu le 25 mai 2019, du Conseil Académique en matière de (Bea Cantillon, Etienne Callataÿ, Philippe Demol, Pierre Devolder, Jean Hindriks, Ria Janvier, Françoise Masai, Gabriel Perl, Erik Schokkaert, Yves Stevens, Frank Vandenbroucke, Elly Van Velde). Il a été publié, avec quelques amendements et ajouts nature rédactionnelle, dans Le Soir 29 p. 22. Les ont constitué un thème important pendant la campagne électorale. Evidemment, tourne autour propositions ponctuelles, comme niveau pension minimum ou l’âge légale. Ces devront toutefois être traduites vraie politique et, que cette conversion puisse menée à bien, il faudra qu’elle obéisse gouvernance. Nous retenons ici six. Premièrement, les mesures prendre s’inscrire système logique cohérent. Par exemple, si on veut donner beaucoup liberté sur choix moment où l’on prend sa pension, faut corrections assurer l’équité entre ceux qui partent après longue carrière plus courte. On doit donc débattre forme ces leur importance. même défi cohérence se pose désire mettre place régime partielles, s’inscrit approche globale fin carrière. exemples illustrent règle générale : déterminants l’architecture ne peuvent venir « » mais doivent au contraire présider l’élaboration chaque mesure concrète. Deuxièmement, est contrat générations indiquer clairement ce jeunes attendre long terme. Ainsi par atteindre montant X 2024, demander comment évoluera avenir lointain, examinant aussi soutenabilité scénarios peut pas dire aux que, eux verra bien ». Troisièmement, clarifier part l’idée continuera évoluer prochaine législature oui, base quels principes. C’est fait double question. D’une part, clair objectifs poursuivis terme (veut-on exemple moyenne suive chemin parallèle celui salaire moyen ?) stratégie soutenant (y inclus modes financement). D’autre faire idée manière dont adaptations futures auront lieu décidons-nous dès maintenant d’adaptations concrètes ? Ou fixons- nous règles jeu objectives détermineront feront lumière d’évolutions connaissons encore (la hausse bien-être, l’espérance vie…) laissons-nous l’avenir entièrement ouvert Quatrièmement, aucune décision prise sans ses conséquences aient l’objet projections chiffrées terme, tant termes financière qu’en d’adéquation sociale. entendons l’horizon 2040, soit juste sommet papy-boom, 2060, quand d’aujourd’hui partiront retraite. Comme évidemment prédit certitude, compte éventail (plus moins croissance économique, vie…). La effet l’art mesurer gérer l’incertitude partager risques. Cinquièmement, repousser questions difficiles liées différence d’espérance vie notamment instruits formés, droits inégaux hommes femmes, qualité travail notion ‘métiers pénibles’. devra évolutions sociétales, tels changements structures familiales, cohabitation rapport mariage classique, nouvelles réalités marché travail… recherche réponses laissée tard d’emblée intégrer préoccupations sociales trajet réforme. Sixièmement, soumises large concertation sociale politique, y associant étroitement partenaires sociaux. Cette structurée. existe demeurant différentes institutions jouer rôle national Travail, Comité Pensions, Centre d’Expertise (au sein Bureau fédéral Plan), d’Etude Vieillissement, académique Pensions (le successeur Commission Réforme 2020 – 2040 avait remis son juin 2014). Un nouveau gouvernement expliciter qu’il entend attribuer chacune institutions. administrations pouvoir stade précoce opinion faisabilité administrative propositions. politiques besoin c’est d’ambition temps d’une certaine prudence ambitieux regarder loin réformer profondeur, exige cerne l’effet global possibles décisions avant trancher. combinaison caractérise bonnes réformes.